Hyperventilation Syndromes

Physiological Considerations in Clinical Management
  • L. C. Lum


This study of Da Costa’s syndrome and hyperventilation-based illness spans 25 years and 3500 patients. With the first 2000, clinical diagnosis was backed by laboratory control—spirometry, blood gases, and end-tidal Pco2; latterly, clinical criteria alone have been used. Measurements rarely enhance the evidence of the experienced eye (Lum, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1978, 1981, 1987).


Panic Attack Mitral Valve Prolapse Respiratory Alkalosis High Protein Intake Cortical Arousal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allen, T.E., and Agus, B. Hyperventilation leading to hallucinations. American Journal of Psychiatry 1968, 125, 632–637.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Beumer, H.J., and Hardonk, H.K. Hyperventilation syndrome. In P.J. Vinken and D.W. Bruyn (Eds.), Handbook of clinical neurology. Vol. 38. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1979, pp. 309–360.Google Scholar
  3. Cluff, R.C. Chronic hyperventilation and its treatment by physiotherapy. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 1984, 77, 855–862.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Engel, G.L., Ferris, E.B., and Logan, M. Hyperventilation: Analysis of clinical symptomatology. Annals of Internal Medicine, 1947, 27, 683–704.Google Scholar
  5. Evans, D.W., and Lum, L.C. Hyperventilation: An important cause of pseudoangina. Lancet, 1977, pp. 155–157.Google Scholar
  6. Kontos, H.A., Richardson, D.W., Raper, A.J., Zubair-ul-Hassan, and Patterson, J.L. Mechanism of action of hypocapnic alkalosis on limb blood vessels in man and dog. American Journal of Physiology, 1972, 223, 1296–1307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Lum, L.C. Hyperventilation: the tip and the iceberg. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 1975, 19, 375–383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Lum, L.C. The syndrome of habitual chronic hyperventilation. In O. Hill (Ed.), Modern Trends in Psychosomatic Medicine. Vol. 3. London: Butterworths, 1976, pp. 196–230.Google Scholar
  9. Lum, L.C. Breathing exercises in the treatment of hyperventilation and chronic anxiety states. Chest Heart and Stroke Journal, Spring, 1977, 2, 6–11.Google Scholar
  10. Lum, L.C. Respiratory alkalosis and hypocarbia. The role of carbon dioxide in the body economy. Chest Heart and Stroke Journal, Winter, 1978/79, 3, 31–34.Google Scholar
  11. Lum, L.C. Hyperventilation and anxiety state. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 1981, 74, 1–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Lum, L.C. Hyperventilation and pseudo-allergic reactions. In P. Dukor, P. Kallos, H.D. Schlum- berger, and G.B. West (Eds.), Pseudo-allergic reactions. 4. Basel: Karger, 1985, pp. 106–118.Google Scholar
  13. Lum, L.C. Hyperventilation syndromes in medicine and psychiatry: A review. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 1987, 80, 229–231.Google Scholar
  14. Magarian, G. Hyperventilation syndromes: Infrequently recognized common expressions of anxiety and stress. Medicine, 1982, 61, 219–236.Google Scholar
  15. Pickering, Sir G. Creative malady. London: Allen and Unwin, 1974.Google Scholar
  16. Rice, R.L. Symptom patterns of the hyperventilation syndrome. American Journal of Medicine, 1950, 8, 691–700.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Wood, P. Aetiology of DaCosta’s syndrome. British Medical Journal, 1941, 1, 845–851. Wyke, B. Brain function and metabolic disorders. London: Butterworths, 1963.Google Scholar
  18. Wyke, B. Principles of general neurology. London: Elsevier, 1969.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. C. Lum
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chest Medicine (Emeritus)Papworth and Addenbrooke’s HospitalsCambridgeEngland

Personalised recommendations