Genetic Studies of Obesity across the Life Span

  • Joanne M. Meyer
Part of the Perspectives on Individual Differences book series (PIDF)

Abstract

Obesity and correlated aspects of body fat distribution and patterning are established risk factors for several adult clinical disorders, including non-insulindependent diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and some cancers (Van Ittallie & Abraham, 1985; Barrett-Connor, 1985; Bray, 1985; Baumgartner, Roche, Chumlea, Siervogel, & Glueck, 1987; Blair, Habicht, Sims, Sylvester, & Abraham, 1984; Donahue, Abbot, Bloom, Reed, & Katsuhiko-Yano, 1987). Understanding the etiology of obesity is a necessary prerequisite for strategies aimed at reducing, and consequently ameliorating the effects of, excess weight. It has proven difficult, however, to obtain a thorough understanding of this etiology. The etiology is undoubtedly complex, and there is unlikely a single metabolic or behavioral explanation of individual differences in adiposity. Instead, the current evidence suggests that obesity is a consequence of both inherited (genetic) and acquired (environmental) aspects of caloric intake and energy expenditure. These factors most likely differ in their importance over an individual’s lifetime.

Keywords

Genetic Influence Weight Class Adoptive Parent Adoption Study Twin Data 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ayatollahi, S. M. T. (1992). Obesity in school children and their parents in southern Iran. International Journal of Obesity, 16, 845–850.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Barrett-Connor, E. L. (1985). Obesity, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease. Annals of Internal Medicine, 103, 1010–1019.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Baumgartner, R. N., Roche, A. F., Chumlea, W., Siervogel, R. M., and Glueck, C. J. (1987). Fatness and fat patterns: Associations with plasma lipids and blood pressures in adults, 18 to 57 years of age. American Journal of Epidemiology, 126, 614–628.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Berkowitz, R. I., Agras, W. S., Korner, A. F., Kraemer, H. C., and Zeanah, C. H. (1985). Physical activity and adiposity: A longitudinal study from birth to childhood. Journal of Pediatrics, 106, 734–738.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blair, D., Habicht, J. P., Sims, E. A. H., Sylvester, D., and Abraham, S. (1984). Evidence for an increased risk for hypertension with centrally located body fat and the effect of race and sex on this risk. American Journal of Epidemiology, 119, 526–540.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bodurtha, J. N., Mosteller, M., Hewitt, J. K., Nance, W. E., Eaves, L. J., Moskowitz, W. B., Katz, S., and Schieken, R. M. (1990). Genetic analysis of anthropometrie measures in 11-year-old twins: The Medical College of Virginia Twin Study. Pediatric Research, 28, 1–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Borecki, I. B., Bonney, G. E., Rice, T., Bouchard, C., and Rao, D.C. (1993). Influence of genotype-dependent effects of covariates on the outcome of segregation analysis of the body mass index. American Journal of Human Genetics, 53, 676–687.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bouchard, C., Perusse, L., Leblanc, C., Tremblay, A., and Theriault, G. (1988). Inheritance of the amount and distribution cif human body fat. International Journal of Obesity, 12, 205–215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bouchard, C., Tremblay, A., Despres, J., Nadeau, A., Lupien, P. J., Theriault, G., Dussault, J., Moorjani, S., Pinault, S., and Fournier, G. (1990). The response to long-term overfeeding in identical twins. New England Journal of Medicine, 322 (32), 1477–1482.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bray, G. A. (1985). Complications of obesity. Annals of Internal Medicine, 103, 1052–1062.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Brook, G. D., Huntley, R. M. C., and Slack, J. (1975). Influence of heredity and environment in the determination of skinfold thickness in children. British Medical Journal, 2, 719–721.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Burns, T. L., Moll, P. P., and Lauer, R. M. (1989). The relation between ponderosity and coronary risk factors in children and their relatives: The Muscatine Ponderosity Family Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 129, 973–987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Burns, T. L., Moll, P. P., and Lauer, R. M. (1992). Increased familial cardiovascular mortality in older schoolchildren. The Muscatine Ponderosity Family Study. Pediatrics, 89 (2), 262–268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Byard, P. J., Siervogel, R. M., and Roche, A. F. (1983). Sibling correlations for weight/stature2 and calf circumference: Age changes and possible sex linkage. Human Biology, 55, 677–685.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Cardon, L. R. (1983). Height, weight, and obesity. In R. Plomin, J. C. DeFries, and D. W. Fulker (Eds.), Nature and nurture druing middle childhood (pp. 165–172 ). London: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  16. Charney, E., Goodman, H. C., McBridge, M., Lyon, B., and Pratt, R. (1976): Childhood antecedents of adult obesity: Do chubby infants become obese adults? New England Journal of Medicine, 295, 6–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Donahue, R., Abbot, P., Bloom, R., Reed, E., and Katsuhiko-Yano, D. M. (1987). Central obesity and coronary heart disease in men. Lancet, 1 (8537), 821–824.Google Scholar
  18. Donahue, R. P., Prineas, R. J., Gomez, O., and Hong, C. P. (1992). Familial resemblance of body fat distribution: The Minneapolis Children’s Blood Pressure Study. International Journal of Obesity, 16, 161–167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Fabsitz, R. R., Carmelli, D., and Hewitt, J. K. (1992). Evidence for independent genetic influences on obesity in middle age. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 16, 657–666.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Griffiths, M., and Payne, P. R. (1976). Energy expenditure in small children of obese and non-obese parents. Nature, 260, 698–700.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Haffner, S. M., Mitchell, B. D., Hazuda, H. P., and Stern, M. P. (1991). Greater influence of central distribution of adipose tissue on incidence of non-insulin dependent diabetes in women than men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 53, 1312–1317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Hunt, S. C., Hasstedt, S. J., Kuida, H., Stults, B. M., Hopkins, P. N., and Williams, R. R. (1989). Genetic heritability and common environmental components of resting and stressed blood pressures, lipids, and body mass index in Utah pedigrees and twins. American Journal of Epidemiology, 129, 625–638.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Karlin, S., Williams, P. T., Jensen, S., and Farquhar, J. W. (1981). Genetic analysis of the Stanford LRC family study data. I. Structural exploratory data analysis of height and weight measurements. American Journal of Epidemiology, 113, 307–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Korkeila, M., Kaprio, J., Rissanen, A., and Koskenvuo, M. (1991). Effects of gender and age on the heritability of the body mass index. International Journal of Obesity, 15, 647–654.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Melbin, T., and Vuille, J.-C. (1976). Weight gain in infancy and physical development between 7 and 101/2 years of age. British Journal of Preventive and Social Medicine, 30, 233–238.Google Scholar
  26. Moll, P. P., Burns, T. L., and Lauer, R. M. (1991). The genetic and environmental sources of body mass index variability: The Muscatine Ponderosity Family Study. American Journal of Human Genetics, 49, 1243–1255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Neale, M. C., and Cardon, L. R. (1992). Methodology for genetic studies of twins and families. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Press.Google Scholar
  28. Price, R. A., Cadoret, R. J., Stunkard, A. J., and Troughton, E. (1987). Genetic contributions to human fatness: An adoption study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 1003–1008.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Price, R. A., and Gottesman, I. I. (1991). Body fat in identical twins reared apart: Roles for genes and environment. Behavior Genetics, 21, 1–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Price, R. A., Ness, R., and Laskarzewski, P. (1989). Common major gene inheritance of extreme overweight. Human Biology, 62, 747–765.Google Scholar
  31. Price, R. A., Stunkard, A. J., Ness, R., Wadden, T., Heshka, S., Kanders, B., and Cormillot, A. (1990). Childhood onset (age 10) obesity has high familial risk. International Journal of Obesity, 14, 185–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Province, M. A., Arnqvist, P., Keller, J., Higgins, M,. and Rao, D. C. (1990). Strong evidence for a major gene for obesity in the large, unselected, total Community Health Study of Tecumseh. American Journal of Human Genetics, 47(Supplement), A143.Google Scholar
  33. Ramirez, M. E. (1993). Familial aggregation of subcutaneous fat deposits and the peripheral fat distribution pattern. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, l7, 63–68.Google Scholar
  34. Rice, T., Borecki, I. B., Bouchard, C., and Rao, D. C. (1993). Segregation analysis of fat mass and other body composition measures derived from underwater weighing. American Journal of Human Genetics, 52, 967–973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Selby, J. V., Newman, B., Quesenberry, C. P., Fabsitz, R. R., Carmelli, D., Meaney, F. J., and Selmenda, C. (1990). Genetic and behavioral influences on body fat distribution. International Journal of Obesity, 14,593–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Sorensen, T. I. A., Holst, C., and Stunkard, A. J. (1992). Childhood body mass index-genetic and familial environmental influences assessed in a longitudinal adoption study. International Journal of Obesity, 16, 705–715.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Sorensen, T. I. A., Price, R. A., Stunkard, A. J., and Schulsinger, F. (1989). Genetics of obesity in adult adoptees and their biological siblings. British Medical Journal, 298, 87–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Stark, O., Atkins, E., Wolff, O. H., and Douglas, J. W. B. (1981). Longitudinal study of obesity in the National Survey of Health and Development. British Medical Journal, 283, 13–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Stevens, J., Gautman, S. P., and Keil, J. K. (1993). Body mass index and fat patterning as correlates of lipids and hypertension in an elderly, biracial population. Journal of Gerontology, 48, M249–254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Stunkard, A. J., Foch, T. T., and Hrubec, Z. (1986a). A twin study of human obesity. Journal of the American Medical Association, 256, 51–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Stunkard, A. J., Harris, J. R., Pedersen, N. L., and McClearn, G. E. (1990). The body-mass index of twins who have been reared apart. New England Journal of Medicine, 322, 1483–1487.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Stunkard, A. J., Sorensen, T. I. A., Hanis, C., Teasdale, T. W., Chakraborty, R., Schull, W. J., and Schulsinger, F. (1986b). An adoption study of human obesity. New England Journal of Medicine, 314, 193–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Van Itallie, T. B. (1985). Health implications of overweight and obesity in the United States. Annals of Internal Medicine, 103, 983–988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Wang, Z., Ouyang, Z., Wang, D., and Tang, X. (1990). Heritability of blood pressure in 7- to 12-yearold Chinese twins, with special reference to body size effects. Genetic Epidemiology, 7, 447452.Google Scholar
  45. Zonta, L. A., Jayakar, S. D., Bosisio, M., Galante, A., and Pennetti, V. (1987). Genetic analysis of human obesity in an Italian sample. Human Heredity, 37, 129–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joanne M. Meyer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Human Genetics, Medical College of VirginiaVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA

Personalised recommendations