Behavior Genetic Studies of Cardiovascular Responses to Stress

  • John K. Hewitt
  • J. Rick Turner
Part of the Perspectives on Individual Differences book series (PIDF)

Abstract

Systematic research in the fields of cardiovascular psychophysiology, behavioral medicine, and psychosomatic medicine has revealed that there is considerable individual variation in psychophysiological responses to psychological stress (Manuck, Kasprowicz, Monroe, Larkin, & Kaplan, 1989; Obrist, 1981; Turner, 1989). While all individual difference phenomena are of intrinsic interest to behavioral scientists, variation in cardiovascular stress responses has attracted additional attention as a result of hypothesized links between large stress responses and the later development of cardiovascular disease (Blascovich & Katkin, 1993; Matthews et al., 1986; Manuck, 1994; Turner, Sherwood, & Light, 1992).

Keywords

Twin Pair Behavioral Medicine Ambulatory Blood Pressure Cardiovascular Response Heart Rate Response 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anastasiades, P., and Johnston, D. W. (1990). A simple activity measure for use with ambulatory subjects. Psychophysiology, 27, 87–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, N. B., McNeilly, M., and Myers, H. (1992). Toward understanding race differences in autonomic reactivity: A proposed contextual model. In J. R. Turner, A. Sherwood, and K. C. Light (Eds.), Individual differences in cardiovascular response to stress (pp. 125–145 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  3. Blascovich, J., and Katkin, E. S. (1993). Cardiovascular reactivity to psychological stress and disease. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boomsma, D. I. (1992). Quantitative genetic analysis of cardiovascular risk factors in twins and their parents. Thesis: Free University of Amsterdam. Enschede: Febodruk.Google Scholar
  5. Carmelli, D., Chesney, M. A., Ward, M. M., and Rosenman, R. H. (1985). Twin similarity in cardiovascular stress response. Health Psychology, 4, 413–423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cannelli, D., Ward, M. M., Reed, T., Grim, C. E., Harshfield, G. A., and Fabsitz, R. R. (1991). Genetic effects on cardiovascular responses to cold and mental activity in late adulthood. American Journal of Hypertension, 4, 239–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carroll, D., Hewitt, J. K., Last, K. A., Turner, J. R., and Sims, J. (1985). A twin study of cardiac reactivity and its relationship to parental blood pressure. Physiology and Behavior, 34, 103–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Degaute, J.-P., Van Cauter, E., van de Borne, P., and Linkowski, P. (1994). Twenty-four-hour blood pressure and heart rate profiles in humans: A twin study. Hypertension, 23, 244–253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ditto, B. (1993). Familial influences on heart rate, blood pressure, and self-report anxiety responses to stress: Results from 100 twin pairs. Psychophysiology, 30, 635–645.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Eaves, L. J., Last, K. A., Young, P. A., and Martin, N. G. (1978). Model-fitting approaches to the analysis of human behaviour. Heredity, 41, 249–320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fabsitz, R. R., Carmelli, D., and Hewitt, J. K. (1992). Evidence for independent genetic influences on obesity in middle age. International Journal of Obesity, 16, 657–666.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Gerber, I. M., Schnall, P. L., and Pickering, T. G. (1990). Body fat and its distribution in relation to casual and ambulatory blood pressure. Hypertension, 15, 508–513.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Girdler, S. S., Turner, J. R., Sherwood, A., and Light, K. C. (1990). Gender differences in blood pressure control during a variety of behavioral stressors. Psychosomatic Medicine, 52, 571–591.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Harshfield, G. A., and Pulliam, D. A. (1992). Individual differences in ambulatory blood pressure patterns. In J. R. Turner, A. Sherwood, and K. C. Light (Eds.), Individual differences in cardiovascular response to stress (pp. 51–61 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  15. Heath, A. C., Neale, M. C., Hewitt, J. K., Eaves, L. J., and Fulker, D. W. (1989). Testing structural equation models for twin data using LISREL. Behavior Genetics, 19, 9–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hewitt, J. K., Eaves, L. J., Neale, M. C., and Meyer, J. M. (1988). Resolving causes of developmental continuity or “tracking.” I. Longitudinal twin studies during growth. Behavior Genetics, 18, 122–151.Google Scholar
  17. Hewitt, J. K., Stunkard, A. J., Carroll, D., Sims, J., and Turner, J. R. (1991). A twin study approach towards understanding genetic contributions to body size and metabolic rate. Acta Geneticae Medicae et Gemellalogiae, 40, 133–146.Google Scholar
  18. Hinderliter, A. L., Willis, P. W., and Light, K. C. (1992). Relationships of obesity and blood pressure to left ventricular function in young subjects with normal or marginally elevated blood pressure. American Journal of Hypertension, 5, 31A.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hines, E. A., Jr., McIlhaney, M. L., and Gage, R. P. (1957). A study of twins with normal blood pressures and with hypertension. Transactions of the Association of American Physicians, 70, 282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Hurwitz, B. E., Nelesen, R. A., Saab, P. G., Nagel, J. H., Spitzer, S. B., Gellman, M. D., McCabe, P. M., Phillips, D. J., and Schneiderman, N. (1993). Differential patterns of dynamic cardiovascular regulation as a function of task. Biological Psychology, 36, 75–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jöreskog, K. G., and Sörbom, D. (1988). LISREL VII: A guide to the program and applications. Chicago: SPSS Inc.Google Scholar
  22. Kamarck, T. W., and Jennings, J. R. (1991). Biobehavioral factors in sudden cardiac death. Psychological Bulletin, 109, 42–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Light, K. C. (1989). Constitutional factors relating to differences in cardiovascular response. In N. Schneiderman, S. M. Weiss, and P. G. Kaufmann (Eds.), Handbook of research methods in cardiovascular behavioral medicine (pp. 417–431 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  24. Light, K. C., Turner, J. R., Hinderliter, A., and Sherwood, A. (1993). Race and gender comparisons: Hemodynamic responses to a series of stressors. Health Psychology, 12, 354–365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lovallo, W. R. (1975). The cold pressor test and autonomic function: A review and integration. Psychophysiology, 12, 268–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mancia, G. (1990). Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring: Research and clinical applications. Journal of Hypertension, 8 (Supplement 7), S1 - S13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Mann, S., Millar-Craig, M. W., and Raftery, E. B. (1985). Superiority of 24-hour measurement of blood pressure over clinical values in determining prognosis in hypertension. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension, A7 (2–3), 279–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Manuck, S. B. (1994). Cardiovascular reactivity in cardiovascular disease: “Once more unto the breach.” International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 1, 4–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Manuck, S. B., Kasprowicz, A. L., Monroe, S. M., Larkin, K. T., and Kaplan, J. R. (1989). Psychophysiological reactivity as a dimension of individual differences. In N. Schneiderman, S. M. Weiss, and P. G. Kaufmann (Eds.), Handbook of research methods in cardiovascular behavioral medicine (pp. 365–382 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  30. Matthews, K. A., Rakaczky, C. J., Stoney, C. M., and Manuck, S. B. (1987). Are cardiovascular responses to behavioral stressors a stable individual difference variable in childhood? Psychophysiology, 24, 464–473.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Matthews, K. A., Weiss, S. M., Detre, T., Dembroski, T. M., Falkner, B., Manuck, S. B., and William, R. B., Jr. (1986). Handbook of stress, reactivity, and cardiovascular disease. New York: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  32. Mcllhaney, M. L., Shaffer, J. W., and Hines, E. A., Jr. (1975). The heritability of blood pressure: An investigation of 200 pairs of twins using the cold pressor test. Johns Hopkins Medical Journal, 136, 57–64.Google Scholar
  33. Neale, M. C. (1993). Mx: Statistical modelling. Richmond: Virginia Commonwealth University, Departments of Human Genetics and Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  34. Neale, M. C., and Cardon, L. R. (1992). Methodology for genetic studies of twins and : families. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  35. Obrist, P. A. (1981). Cardiovascular psychophysiology: A perspective. New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Patterson, S. M., Krantz, D. S., Montgomery, L. C., Deuster, P. A., Hedges, S. M., and Nebel, L. E. (1993). Automated physical activity monitoring: Validation and comparison with physiological and self-reported measures. Psychophysiology, 30, 296–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Perloff, D. Sokolow, M., and Cowan, R. (1983). The prognostic value of ambulatory blood pressures. Journal of the American Medical Association, 249, 2793–2798.Google Scholar
  38. Pickering, T. G. (1989). Ambulatory monitoring: Applications and limitations. In N. Schneiderman, S. M. Weiss, and P. G. Kaufmann (Eds.), Handbook of research methods in cardiovascular behavioral medicine (pp. 261–272 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  39. Pickering, T. G. (1991). Ambulatory monitoring and blood pressure variability. London: Science Press.Google Scholar
  40. Pickering, T. G. (1992). The ninth Sir George Pickering memorial lecture: Ambulatory monitoring and the definition of hypertension. Journal of Hypertension, 10, 401–409.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pickering, T. G., and Devereux, R. (1987). Ambulatory monitoring of blood pressure as a predictor of cardiovascular risk. American Heart Journal, 114, 925–928.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rose, R. J. (1984). Familial influence on ambulatory blood pressure: Studies of normotcnsive twins. In M. A. Weber and J. I. M. Drayer (Eds.), Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (pp. 167–172 ). New York: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rose, R. J. (1986). Familial influences on cardiovascular reactivity. In K. A. Matthews, S. M. Weiss, T. Detre, T. M. Dembroski, B. Falkner, S. B. Manuck, and R. B. Williams, Jr. (Eds.), Handbook of stress, reactivity, and cardiovascular disease (pp. 259–272 ). New York: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  44. Rose, R. J., Grim, C. E., and Miller, J. Z. (1984). Familial influences on cardiovascular stress reactivity: Studies of normotensive twins. Behavioral Medicine Update, 6, 21–24.Google Scholar
  45. Saab, P. G. (1989). Cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses to challenge in males and females. In N. Schneiderman, S. M. Weiss, and P. G. Kaufmann (Eds.), Handbook of research methods in cardiovascular behavioral medicine (pp. 453–481 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  46. Saab, P. G., Llabre, M. M., Hurwitz, B. E., Schneiderman, N., Wohlgemuth, W., Durel, L. A., Massie, C., and Nagel, J. (1993). The cold pressor test: Vascular and myocardial response patterns and their stability. Psychophysiology, 30, 366–373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Saab, P. G., Matthews, K. A., Stoney, C. M., and McDonald, R. H. (1989). Premenopausal and postmenopausal women differ in their cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses to behavioral stressors. Psychophysiology, 26, 270–280.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Shapiro, A. P., Nicotero, J., and Scheib, E. T. (1968). Analysis of the variability of blood pressure, pulse rate, and catecholamine responsivity in identical and fraternal twins. Psychosomatic Medicine, 30, 506–520.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Sherwood, A. (1993). The use of impedance cardiography in cardiovascular reactivity research. In J. Blascovich and E. S. Katkin (Eds.), Cardiovascular reactivity to psychological stress and disease (pp. 157–199 ). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sherwood, A., Allen, M. T., Fahrenberg, J., Kelsey, R. M., Lovallo, W. R., and van Doornen, L. J. P. (1990). Committee report: Methodological guidelines for impedance cardiography. Psychophysiology, 27, 1–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sherwood, A., and Turner, J. R. (1992). A conceptual and methodological overview of cardiovascular reactivity research. In J. R. Turner, A. Sherwood, and K. C. Light (Eds.), Individual differences in cardiovascular response to stress (pp. 3–32 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  52. Sherwood, A., and Turner, J. R. (1993). Postural stability of hemodynamic responses during mental challenge. Psychophysiology, 30, 237–244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Smith, T. W., and Allred, K. D. (1989). Blood-pressure responses during social interaction in high-and low-cynically hostile males. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 12, 135–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Smith, T. W., Allred, K. D., Morrison, C. A., and Carlson, S. D. (1989). Cardiovascular reactivity and interpersonal influence: Active coping in a social context. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 209–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Smith, T. W., Turner, C. W., Ford, M. H., Hunt, S. C., Barlow, G. K., Stults, B. M., and Williams, R. R. (1987). Blood pressure reactivity in adult male twins. Health Psychology, 6, 209–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Somes, G. W., Harshfield, G. A., Alpert, B. S., Goble, M. M., and Schieken, R. M. (1995). Genetic influences on ambulatory blood pressure patterns: The Medical College of Virginia twin study. American Journal of Hypertension (in press).Google Scholar
  57. Stoney, C. M. (1992). The role of reproductive hormones in cardiovascular and neuroendocrine function during behavioral stress. In J. R. Turner, A. Sherwood, and K. C. Light (Eds.), Individual differences in cardiovascular response to stress (pp. 147–163 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  58. Theorell, T., deFaire, U., Schalling, D., Adamson, U., and Askevold, F. (1979). Personality traits and psychophysiological reactions to a stressful interview in twins with varying degrees of coronary heart disease. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 23, 89–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Turner, J. R. (1989). Individual differences in heart rate response during behavioral challenge. Psychophysiology, 26, 497–505.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Turner, J. R. (1994). Cardiovascular reactivity and stress: Patterns of physiological response. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  61. Turner, J. R., Carroll, D., Sims, J., Hewitt, J. K., and Kelly, K. A. (1986). Temporal and inter-task consistency of heart rate reactivity during active psychological challenge: A twin study. Physiology and Behavior, 38, 641–644.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Turner, J. R., and Hewitt, J. K. (1992). Twin studies of cardiovascular response to psychological challenge: A review and suggested future directions. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 14, 12–20.Google Scholar
  63. Turner, J. R., and Sherwood, A. (1991). Postural effects on blood pressure reactivity: Implications for studies of laboratory-field generalization. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 35, 289–295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Turner, J. R., Sherwood, A., and Light, K. C. (Eds.) (1992). Individual differences in cardiovascular response to stress. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  65. Turner, J. R., Ward, M. M., Gellman, M. D., Johnston, D. W., Light, K. C., and van Doornen, L. J. P. (1994). The relationship between laboratory and ambulatory cardiovascular activity: Current evidence and future directions: Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 16, 12–23.Google Scholar
  66. Vandenberg, S. G., Clark, P. J., and Samuels, I. (1965). Psychophysiological reactions of twins: Hereditary factors in galvanic skin resistance, heartbeat, and breathing rates. Eugenics Quarterly, 12, 7–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. van Doornen, L. J. P. (1986). Sex differences in physiological reactions to real life stress and their relationship to psychological variables. Psychophysiology, 23, 657–662.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. van Doornen, L. J. P., and Turner, J. R. (1992). The ecological validity of laboratory stress testing. In J. R. Turner, A. Sherwood, and K. C. Light (Eds.), Individual differences in cardiovascular response to stress (pp. 63–83 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  69. Van Egeren, L. F., and Gellman, M. D. (1992). Cardiovascular reactivity to everyday events. In E. H. Johnson, W. D. Gentry, and S. Julius (Eds.), Personality, elevated blood pressure, and hypertension (pp. 135–150 ). Washington, D.C.: Hemisphere Publishing Corp.Google Scholar
  70. Ward, M. M., Turner, J. R., and Johnston, D. W. (1994). Temporal stability of ambulatory cardiovascular monitoring. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 16, 3–11.Google Scholar
  71. Wilson, M. F., Lovallo, W. R., and Pincomb, G. A. (1989). Noninvasive measurement of cardiac function. In N. Schneiderman, S. M. Weiss, and P. G. Kaufmann (Eds.), Handbook of research methods in cardiovascular behavioral medicine (pp. 23–50 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • John K. Hewitt
    • 1
  • J. Rick Turner
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for Behavioral GeneticsUniversity of Colorado at BoulderBoulderUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Pediatrics and Preventive MedicineUniversity of TennesseeMemphisUSA

Personalised recommendations