Coordinating the Treatment Process among Various Disciplines

  • Naomi B. Swiezy
  • Johnny L. Matson
Part of the Applied Clinical Psychology book series (NSSB)


Considerable debate has occurred in recent years over what constitutes effective treatment. Furthermore, many have argued about what psychologically based procedures should be allowed as treatments for problem behaviors. A number of authors have laid out the various techniques, policy procedures, and potential for interventions. But after one has determined techniques one considers appropriate, if and how these methods should be put into practice is still in question. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss some of these pragmatic issues. Specifically, we discuss how to coordinate various disciplines in the treatment process and the implication of these administrative issues on selecting treatments.


Problem Behavior Team Member Discriminative Stimulus Parent Training Treatment Team 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abidin, R. (1971). What’s wrong with behavior modification. Journal of School Psychology, 9, 38–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexander, D. F. (1985). The effect of study skill training on learning disabled students’ retelling of expository material. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18, 263–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen, C. T., & Forman, S. G. (1984). Efficacy of methods of training teachers in behavioral modification. School Psychology Review, 13(1), 26–31.Google Scholar
  4. Baer, A., Rowbury, T., & Baer, D. (1973). The development of instructional control over classroom activities of deviant preschool children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 6, 289–298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Benberich, J. P. (1971). Do the child’s responses shape the teaching behavior of adults: Journal of Experimental Research in Personality, 5, 92-97.Google Scholar
  6. Bergan, J. R., & Tombari, M. L. (1976). Consultant skill and efficiency and the implementation and outcomes of consultation. Journal of School Psychology, 14, 3–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blechman, E. A. (1984). Competent parents, competent children: Behavioral objectives of parent training. In R. F. Dangel & R. A. Polster (Eds.), Parent training: Foundations of research and practice (pp. 34–63). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  8. Bornstein, P. H. (1985). Self-instructional training: A commentary and state-of-the-art. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18, 69–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bornstein, P. H., Hamilton, S. B., & Quevillon, P. R. (1977). Behavior modification by long distance: Demonstration of functional control over disruptive behavior in a rural classroom setting. Behavior Modification, 1, 369–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bornstein, P. H., & Quevillon, R. P. (1976). The effects of a self-instructional package on overactive preschool boys. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 9, 179–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Budd, K. S., & Fabry, P L. (1984). Behavioral assessment in applied parent training: Use of a structured observation system. In R. F Dangel & R. A. Polster (Eds.), Parent training: Foundations of research and practice (pp. 417–442). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  12. Budd, K. S., Riner, T. S., & Brockman, M. P. (1983). A structured observation system for clinical evaluation of parent training. Behavioral Assessment, 5, 373–393.Google Scholar
  13. Bugental, D. B., Whalen, C. K., & Henker, B. (1977). Causal attributions of hyperactive children and motivational assumptions of two behavior-change approaches: Evidence for an interactionist position. Child Development, 48, 874–884.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Burgio, L. D., Whitman, T. L., & Johnson, M. R. (1980). A self-instructional package for increasing attending behavior in educable mentally retarded children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 13, 443–459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cheek, F. E., Laucius, J., Mahncke, M, & Beck, R. (1971). A behavior modification training program for parents of convalescent schizophrenics. In R. D. Rubin, H. Fersterheim, A. A. Lazarus & C. M. Franks (Eds.), Advances in behavior therapy. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  16. Clark, D. B., & Baker, B. L. (1983). Predicting outcome in parent training. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51(2), 309–311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dadds, M. R., Schwartz, S., & Sanders, M. R. (1987). Marital discord and treatment outcome in behavioral treatment of child conduct disorders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55(3), 396–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dangel, R. F., & Polster, R. A. (Eds.). (1984). Parent training: Foundations of research and practice. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  19. Denney, D. R. (1975). The effects of exemplary and cognitive models and self-rehearsal on children’s interrogative strategies. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 19, 467–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dumas, J. E., & Wahler, R. G. (1983). Predictors of treatment outcome in past training: Mother insularity and socioeconomic disadvantages. Behavioral Assessment, 5, 301–313.Google Scholar
  21. Dyer, K., Schwartz, I. S., & Luce, S. C. (1984). A supervision program for increasing functional activities for severely handicapped students in residential setting. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 17, 249–259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Favell, J. E. (1990). Issues in the use of nonaversive and aversive interventions. In S. L. Harris & J. S. Handelman (Eds.), Aversive and nonaversive interventions: Controlling life-threatening behavior by the developmentally disabled (pp. 36–56). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  23. Forehand, R., & King, H. E. (1977). Noncompliant children: Effects of parent training on behavior and attitude change. Behavior Modification, 1, 93–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Forman, S. G. (1980). A comparison of cognitive training and response cost procedures in modifying aggressive behavior of elementary school children. Behavior Therapy, 11, 594–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Foxx, R. M., Bittle, R. G., & Faw, C. D. (1989). A maintenance strategy for discontinuing aversive procedures: A 52-month follow-up of the treatment of aggression. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 94, 27–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Friedling, C., & O’Leary, S. G. (1979). Effects of self-instructional training on second-and third-grade hyperactive children: A failure to replicate. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 12, 211–219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gottman, J., Gonso, J., & Schuler, P. (1976). Teaching social skills to isolated children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 4, 79–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Grabowski, J., & Thompson, T. (1972). A behavior modification program for behaviorally retarded institutionalized males. In T. Thompson & J. Grabowski (Eds.), Behavior modification of the mentally retarded. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Greenwood, C. R., Carta, J. J., & Hall, R. V. (1988). The use of peer tutoring strategies in classroom management and educational instruction. School Psychology Review, 17, 258–275.Google Scholar
  30. Greenwood, C. R., Dinwiddie, G., Terry, B., Wade, L., Stanley, S., Thibadeaux, S., & Delquadri, J. (1984). Teacher-versus peer-mediated instruction: An ecobehavioral analysis of achievement outcomes. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 17, 521–538.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hall, R. V. (1971). Training teachers in classroom use of contingency management. Education Technology, 4, 31–38.Google Scholar
  32. Hall, J., & Baker, R. (1973). Token economy systems, breakdown and control. Behavior Research and Therapy, 11, 253–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hall, R. V., Fox, R., Willard, D., Goldsmith, L., Emerson, M., Owen, M., Davis, E, & Porcia, E. (1971). The teacher as observer and experimenter in the modification of disputing and talking-out behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 4, 141–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Harris, V, & Sherman, J. (1973). Use and analysis of the “good behavior game” to reduce disruptive classroom behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 6, 405–417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Heffer, R. W, & Kelley, M. L. (1987). Mothers’ acceptance of behavioral interventions for children: The influence of parent race and income. Behavior Therapy, 2, 153–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Herr, S. S. (1990). The law on aversive and nonaversive behavioral intervention. In S. L. Harris & J. S. Handelman (Eds.), Aversive and nonaversive interactions: Controlling life-threatening behavior by the developmentally disabled (pp. 80–118). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  37. Hughes, J. N. (1985). Parents as cotherapists in think aloud. Psychology in the Schools, 22, 436–443.Google Scholar
  38. Iwata, B. A., Dorsey, M. F., Slifer, K. J., Bauman, K. E., & Richman, G. S. (1982). Toward a functional analysis of self-injury. Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 2, 3–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Johnson, D. W, & Johnson, R. T. (1983). Effects of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning experiences on social development. Exceptional Children, 49, 323–329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., Warring, D., & Maruyama, G. (1986). Different cooperative learning procedures and cross-handicap relationships. Exceptional Children, 53, 247–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Kanfer, F. H. (1975). Self-management methods. In F. H. Kanfer & A. P. Goldstein (Eds.), Helping people change: A textbook of methods. New York: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  42. Kapadia, E. S., & Fantuzzo, J. W. (1988). Effects of teacher-and self-administered procedures on the spelling performance of learning-handicapped children. Journal of School Psychology, 26, 49–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Karoly, P. (1980). Operant methods. In F. H. Kanfer & A. P. Goldstein (Eds.), Helping people change: A textbook of methods. New York: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  44. Kazdin, A. E. (1974). Assessment of teacher training in a reinforcement program. Journal of Teacher Education, 25, 266–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kazdin, A. E. (1984). Behavior modification in applied settings (3rd ed.). Homewood, IL: Dorsey.Google Scholar
  46. Kazdin, A. E., & Esveldt-Dawson, K. (1981). How to maintain behavior. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.Google Scholar
  47. Kazdin, A. E., & Polster, R. (1973). Intermittent token reinforcement and response maintenance in extinction. Behavior Therapy, 4, 386–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kendall, P. C, & Finch, A. J., Jr. (1978). A cognitive-behavioral treatment for impulsivity: A group comparison study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 110–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Klingman, A., Melamed, B. G., Cuthbert, M. I., & Hermecz, D. A. (1984). Effects of participant modeling on information acquisition and skill utilization. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 414–422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Koegel, R., Glahn, T. J., & Nieminen, G. S. (1978). Generalization of parent-training results. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 11, 95–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kratochwill, T. R., & Bergan, J. R. (1978). Evaluating programs in applied settings through behavioral consultation. Journal of School Psychology, 16, 375–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lahey B. B., Gendrich, J. G., Gendrich, S. I., Schnelle, J. F., Gant, D. S., & McNees, M. P. (1977). An evaluation of daily report cards with minimal teacher and parent contacts as an efficient method of classroom intervention. Behavior Modification, 1, 381–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. LaVigna, G. W., & Donnellan, A. M. (1986). Alternatives to punishment: Solving behavior problems with nonaversive strategies. New York: Irvington.Google Scholar
  54. Lentz, F. E. (1988). Reductive procedures. In C. Witt, S. N. Elliott, & F. M. Gresham (Eds.), Handbook of behavior therapy in education. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  55. Lichstein, K. L., & Shreibman, L. (1976). Employing electric shock with autistic children: A review of the side effects. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 6, 163–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Loeber, R., & Weisman, R. G. (1975). Contingencies of therapist and trainer performance: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 82, 660–688.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lovaas, O. I. (1987). Behavioral treatment and normal education and intellectual functioning in young autistic children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 3–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lovaas, O. I., & Favell, J. E. (1987). Protection for clients undergoing aversive/restrictive interventions. Education and Treatment of Children, 10, 311–325.Google Scholar
  59. Maheady, L., & Sainato, O. (1985). The effects of peer tutoring upon the social status and social interaction patterns of high and low status elementary students. Education and Treatment of Children, 8, 51–56.Google Scholar
  60. Marchetti, A. G. (1987). Wyatt vs. Stickney: A consent decree. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 8, 249–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Marholin, D., & Steinman, W. (1977). Stimulus control in the classroom as a function of the behavior reinforced. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 5, 465–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Martin, G., Pallotta-Cornick, A., Johnstone, G., & Goyos, A. C. (1980). A supervisory strategy to improve work performance for lower functioning retarded clients in a sheltered workshop. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 183–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Matson, J. L., & DiLorenzo, T. (1983). Punishment and its alternatives: A new perspective for behavior modification. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  64. Matson, J. L., & Gorman-Smith, D. (1986). A review of treatment research for aggressive and disruptive behavior in the mentally retarded. Applied Research in Mental Retardation, 7, 95–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Matson, J. L., & Ollendick, T. H. (1977). Issues in toilet training. Behavior Therapy, 8, 549–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Matson, J. L., & Swiezy, N. B. (1990). The aversives controversy: Policy issues in behavior modification and therapy. Scandinavian Journal of Behavior Therapy, 19, 25–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Matson, J. L., & Taras, M. E. (1989). A 20 year review of punishment and alternative methods to treat problem behaviors in developmentally delayed persons. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 10, 85–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Matson, J. L., & Zeiss, R. A. (1979). The buddy system: A method for generalized reduction of inappropriate interpersonal behavior of retarded psychiatric patients. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 18, 401–405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Meichenbaum, D., & Goodman, J. (1971). Training impulsive children to talk to themselves: A means of developing self-control. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 77, 154–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Monahan, J., & O’Leary, K. D. (1971). Effects of self-instruction on rule-breaking behavior. Psychological Reports, 29, 1059–1066.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mulick, J. A., & Linscheid, T. R. (1988). [Review of Alternatives to punishment: Solving behavior problems with non-aversive strategies.] Research in Developmental Disabilities, 1(1), 3.Google Scholar
  72. Nay, W. R. (1979). Parents as real life reinforcers: The enhancement of parent training effects across conditions other than training. In A. R. Goldstein & F. H. Kanfer (Eds.), Maximizing treatment gains: Transfer enhancement in psychotherapy. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  73. Newsom, C., Favell, J. E., & Rincover, A. (1983). In S. Axelrod & L. Apsche (Eds.), The effects of punishment on human behavior (pp. 285–311). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  74. Newsom, C., & Rincover, A. (1989). Autism. In E. J. Mash & R. A. Barkley (Eds.), Treatment of childhood disorders. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  75. O’Dell, S. (1985). Progress in parent training. In M. Hersen, R. M. Eisler, & P. M. Miller (Eds.), Progress in behavior modification, vol. 19 (pp. 57–108). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  76. O’Leary, K. D., Poulus, R. W., & Devine, V. T. (1972). Tangible reinforcers: Bonuses or bribes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 38, 1–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ollendick, T. H. (1981). Self-monitoring and self-administered overcorrection: The modification of nervous tics in children. Behavior Modification, 5, 75–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Panyan, M. C, & Patterson, E. T. (1974). Teaching attendants the applied aspects of behavior modification. Mental Retardation, 12, 30–32.Google Scholar
  79. Patterson, G. R. (1974). Interventions for boys with conduct problems. Multiple settings, treatment and criteria. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42, 471–481.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Patterson, G. R. (1982). Coercive family process. Eugene, OR: Castalia.Google Scholar
  81. Patterson, G. R., Chamberlain, P., & Reid, J. B. (1982). A comparative evaluation of a parent training program. Behavior Therapy, 13, 638–650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Pigott, H. E., & Heggie, D. L. (1986). Interpreting the conflicting results of individual versus group contingencies in classrooms: The targeted behavior as a mediating variable. Child and Family Behavior Therapy, 7, 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Pizzat, F. J. (1974). Behavior modification in residential treatment for children: Model of a program. New York: Behavioral Publications.Google Scholar
  84. Pomerleau, O. F., Bobrove, P. H., & Smith, R. H. (1973). Rewarding psychiatric aides for the behavioral improvement of assigned patients. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 6, 383–390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Quilitch, H. R. (1975). A comparison of three staff-management procedures. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 8, 59–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Reid, D. H., Parsons, M. B., & Schepis, M. M. (1990). Management practices that affect the relative utility of aversive and nonaversive procedures. In S. L. Harris & J. S. Handelman (Eds.), Aversive and nonaversive interventions: Controlling life-threatening behavior by the developmentally disabled (pp. 144–162). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  87. Repp, A. C., Barton, L. E., & Brulle, A. R. (1982). Naturalistic studies of mentally retarded persons: The effect of staff instructions on student responding. Applied Research in Mental Retardation, 3, 55–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Repp, A. C, & Deitz, D. E. E. (1978). Ethical issues in reducing responding of institutionalized mentally retarded persons. Mental Retardation, 16, 45–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Rickert, V. I., Sottolano, D. C., Parrish, J. M., Riley, A. W., Hunt, F. M., & Pelco, L. E. (1988). Training parents to become better behavior managers: The need for a competency-based approach. Behavior Modification, 12, 475–496.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Rimland, B. (1978). Risks and benefits in the treatment of autistic children: A risk/benefit perspective on the use of aversives. Journal of Autism and Child Schizophrenia, 8, 100–104.Google Scholar
  91. Saigh, P. A., & Umar, A. M. (1983). The effects of a good behavior game on the disruptive behavior of Sudanese elementary school students. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 16, 339–344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sanders, M. R., & James, J. E. (1983). The modification of parent behavior: A review of generalization and maintenance. Behavior Modification, 7, 3–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Schmidt, G. W., & Ulrich, R. E. (1969). Effects of group contingent events on classroom noise. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2, 171–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Schmitt, B. D. (1985). When baby just won’t sleep. Contemporary Pediatrics, 38-52.Google Scholar
  95. Schinke, S. P., & Wong, S. E. (1977). Evaluation of staff training in group homes for retarded persons. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 82, 130–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Schinke, S. P., & Wong, S. E. (1978). Teaching child care workers: A behavioral approach. Child Care Quarterly, 7, 45–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Skinner, B. F. (1988). A statement on punishment. IARET Newsletter, 1(1), 3.Google Scholar
  98. Skinner, C. H., Turco, T. L., Beatty, K. L., & Rasavage, C. (1989). Cover, copy, and compare: A method for increasing multiplication performance. School Psychology Review, 18, 412–420.Google Scholar
  99. Sobey, F. (1970). The nonprofessional revolution in mental health. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  100. Stokes, T. F., & Baer, D. M. (1977). An implicit technology of generalization. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10, 349–367.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Touchette, P. E., MacDonald, R. F., & Langer, S. N. (1985). A scatterplot for identifying stimulus control of problem behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18, 343–351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Van Houten, R., Axelrod, S., Bailey, J. S., Favell, J. E., Foxx, R. M., Iwata, B. A., & Lovaas, O. I. (1988). The right to effective treatment. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 21, 381–384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Wahler, R. G. (1976). Deviant child behavior within the family: Developmental speculations and behavior change strategies. In H. Leitenberg (Ed.), Handbook of behavior modification and behavior therapy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  104. Watson, L. S., Gardner, J. M., & Sanders, C. (1971). Shaping and maintaining behavior modification skills in staff members in a mental retardation institution: Columbus State University behavior modification program. Mental Retardation, 9, 39–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Webster-Stratton, C. (1985). Predictors of treatment outcome in parent training for conduct disordered children. Behavior Therapy, 16, 223–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Wells, K. C., Griest, D. L., & Forehand, R. (1980). The use of a self-control package to enhance temporal generality of a parent training program. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 18, 347–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Witt, J. C., & Elliott, S. N. (1982). The response cost lottery: A time efficient and effective classroom intervention. Journal of School Psychology, 20, 155–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Witt, J. C., Hannafin, M., & Martens, B. (1983). Home based reinforcement: Behavioral covariation between academic performance and inappropriate behavior. Journal of School Psychology, 21, 337–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Ziarnik, J. R., & Bernstein, G. S. (1982). A critical examination of the effect of inservice training on staff performance. Mental Retardation, 20, 109–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Naomi B. Swiezy
    • 1
  • Johnny L. Matson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyLouisiana State UniversityBaton RougeUSA

Personalised recommendations