Postnatal Development of Neurotransmitter Systems in the Mammalian Retina

  • Jon Robbins
  • Hisako Ikeda


The mammalian retina is not fully developed at birth and many mammals eyes do not open for many days post partum. Much of the gross morphological development is complete before the eyes open. For example in the cat retina most of the morphological development is complete by postnatal day (PND) 40 (Fig. 1.), whilst spatial resolution of the cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus (Ikeda & Tremain, 1978), visual acuity measured by visual evoked potentials (Freeman & Marg, 1975) or behaviourally (Mitchell et al, 1976) have not reached adult levels until PND 100. Likewise in humans, the time to reach adult like visual acuity is 3–5 years (Teller & Movshon, 1986).


Tyrosine Hydroxylase Retinal Ganglion Cell Amacrine Cell Postnatal Development Excitatory Amino Acid Receptor 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jon Robbins
    • 1
  • Hisako Ikeda
    • 2
  1. 1.Biomedical Sciences Division, King’s CollegePharmacology GroupLondonUK
  2. 2.Vision Research Unit, UMDS, Rayne InstituteSt Thomas’s HospitalLondonUK

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