On Low Energy Experiments in Qed for Detecting Effects Specifically due to Vacuum Polarization

  • Emilio Zavattini
Part of the Nato ASI Series book series (NSSB, volume 143)


In 1954, Fitch and Rainwater {1} identified muonic atom formation by detecting the deexcitation X rays emitted after μ’s were stopped in matter. Soon the same group {2}realized that studying the energy levels of muonic atoms offered a rather unique way to observe, directly and with very high accuracy, a typical QED effect due to the polarization of the vacuum.


Vacuum Polarization Muonic Atom Helium Nucleus Muonic System Finite Size Correction 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emilio Zavattini
    • 1
  1. 1.CernGenevaSwitzerland

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