The Keldysh Theory of Strong Field Ionization and its Extensions
This paper starts with a concise history of the development of the Keldysh approximation and an overview of its more important general properties, and then a number of new developments are reported as well. These developments include the examination of an exhaustive list of possible S-matrix theories that may be applied to photoionization, and the identification of those among them that are suitable for the strong-field case. Emphasis is placed on the general distinctions between phenomena in different intensity regimes. Intensity limits are given for: the convergence of perturbation theory; the applicability of the electric dipole approximation; the utility of one-dimensional models; the validity of non-relativistic theories; and the separability of the equations of motion. A relativistic version of the Keldysh theory is introduced.
KeywordsIntensity Parameter Schr6dinger Equation Contact Transformation Intensity Domain Initial Atomic State
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