Examination of Plain Carbon Steels Using an Atomic Force Microscope

  • Thomas L. Altshuler


Atomic force microscope (AFM) examination was performed on plain carbon steels. A 1018 steel that was austenized and furnace cooled revealed raised grain boundaries when etched with nital. It was concluded that these grain boundaries consist of walls of cementite formed during cooling below the eutectoid temperature. Examination using the AFM was done on 1045 and 1095 steels that had been water quenched after austenizing. Lath martensite and also martensite platelets were etched less than bainite using nital. These structures were seen more clearly than with optical microscopy.


Atomic Force Microscope Gamma Alumina Differential Interference Contrast Water Quench Lath Martensite 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    A. Sauveur, “The Metallography and Ifeat Treatment of Iron and Steel,” 1st Edition, New York: McGraw Ilill Book Co., Inc. (1912).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. Sauveur, “The Metallography and IIeat Treatment of Iron and Steel,” 4th Edition, New York: McGraw hill Book Co., Inc., 60–65 (1935).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    K. Mills, in “Metals Ifandbook,” 9th Edition, Vol. 9, T. D. Cooper, ed., Metals Park, 01I: American Society for Metals, 88–112 (1985).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. W. Christian, “”Che Theory of “transformations in Metals and Alloys,” Oxford: Pergamon Press, 906–909 (1965).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    G. I3innig, II. Rohrer, C. Gerber, E. Weibele, Surface study by scanning tunneling microscopy, Phys.Rev. Lett., 49: 57 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    G. Binnig, C. F. Quate, C. Gerber, Atomic force microscope, Phys. Rev. Lett., 56: 930–933 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    T. L. Altshuler, Atomic-scale materials characterization in “ Advanced Materials and Processes,” 130: 3, 18–23 (1991).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    ASTM Standard E 140, “Annual Book of ASTM Standards,” 03.01: 338–339 (1992).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Digital Instuments, Inc., 520 E. Montecito St., Santa Barbara, CA 93103.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Martin Wells, personal communication, February 1993.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    American Society for Metals, “Metals Handbook,” 9th Edition, Metals Park, OH: American Society for Metals, 9th Edition, 662–672 (1985).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    C. J. McMahon, Jr., M. Cohen, The fracture of polycrystalline iron, in “ Proceedings of the First International Conference on Fracture,” 2: 779–812 (1965).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    N. J. Petch, The cleavage strength of polycrystals, J. Iron and Steel Inst., 174: 25–28 (1953).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas L. Altshuler
    • 1
  1. 1.Advanced Materials Laboratory, Inc.ConcordUSA

Personalised recommendations