Cyttariales, Lahmiales, Leotiales, Medeolariales, Ostropales, Patellariales, Rhytismatales, and Triblidiales

  • A. Raitviir
  • B. M. Spooner
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 269)


Having considered the impact molecular data is now making in some groups, and also the state of the inoperculate groups, there is a major problem in making substantial progress. The overall situation can only be described as chaotic. Molecular data is minimal and our understanding is based largely on traditional morphological approaches. Additional data is at last starting to be produced on ascus ultrastructure, cytology, chemistry, ontogeny, anamorphs, etc. In addition we have to reconcile what we know now with the examination of fresh material, and comparing that in culture from what is seen in nature. Further, at most perhaps 20–30 % of the fungi in these groups have yet been described.


Aquatic Hyphomycete Gelatinous Sheath Iodine Reaction Lichenicolous Fungus Ectal Excipulum 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Raitviir
    • 1
  • B. M. Spooner
    • 2
  1. 1.Mycological Herbarium Institute of Zoology and BotanyAcademy of Sciences of EstoniaTartuEstonia
  2. 2.The HerbariumRoyal Botanic GardensKew, Richmond, SurreyUK

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