Molecular Data Sets and Broad Taxon Sampling in Detecting Morphological Convergence

  • M. Blackwell
  • J. W. Spatafora
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 269)


Previous hypotheses of relationships between Pyxidiophora and other perithecial ascomycetes with morphological features facilitating arthropod dispersal were examined. Partial sequences of the nuclear encoded small subunit rDNA for about fifty taxa provided a database for phylogenetic analysis. The resulting analysis using parsimony criteria failed to support previous hypotheses of relationships involving taxa with arthropod associations. The following hypotheses are supported: (1) taxa with evansecent asci are in six independent lineages; (2) Pyxidiophora, Subbaromyces, and Kathistes are basal to the larger clade of derived perithecial species; (3) Pyxidiophora does not share a common ancestory with the Hypocreales, Ophiostoma, or Ceratocystis; and (4) Pyxidiophora is not allied with any of the yeasts, including Cephaloascus and Ambrosiozyma. More taxa remain to be sampled since Pyxidiophora is in a region of the tree that is still somewhat unstable.


American Phytopathological Society Ophiostomatoid Fungus Illinois Natural History Survey High Level Taxon Small Subunit rDNA 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Arnold, G.W.R., 1971, Über einige neue taxa und Kombinationen der Sphaeriales, Zeitschrift für Pilzkunde 37: 187–198.Google Scholar
  2. von Arx, J.A., and J.P. van der Walt, 1987, Ophiostomatales and Endomycetales, Studies in Mycology, Baarn 30: 167–176.Google Scholar
  3. Barr, M.E., 1987, Prodromus to class Loculoascornycetes. M.E. Barr, Amherst.Google Scholar
  4. Barr, M.E., 1990, Prodromus to nonlichenized pyrenomycetous members of class Hymenoascornycetes, Mycotaxon 39: 43–184.Google Scholar
  5. Berbee, M.L., and J.W. Taylor, 1992, Convergence in ascospore discharge mechanism among pyrenomycete fungi based on 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequence, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 1: 59–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blackwell, M., 1993, Phylogenetic systematics and ascomycetes, In: The Fungal Holomorph: Mitotic, Meiotic and Pleomorphic Speciation in Fungal Systematics (D.R. Reynolds and J.W. Taylor, eds): 93–103. CAB INTERNATIONAL, Wallingford.Google Scholar
  7. Blackwell, M., and D. Malloch, 1989a, Pyxidiophora: a link between the Laboulbeniales and hyphal ascomycetes, Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 49: 23–32.Google Scholar
  8. Blackwell, M., and D. Malloch, 1989b, Pyxidiophora: life histories and arthropod associations of two species, Canadian Journal of Botany 67: 2552–2562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blackwell, M., and D. Malloch, 1990, Discovery of a Pyxidiophora with Acariniola-type ascospores, Mycological Research 94: 415–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Blackwell, M., J.R. Bridges, J.C. Moser, and T.J. Perry, 1986a, Hyperphoretic dispersal of a Pyxidiophora anamorph, Science 232: 993–995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Blackwell, M., T.J. Perry, J.R. Bridges, and J.C. Moser, 1986b, A new species of Pyxidiophora and its Thaxteriola anamorph, Mycologia 78: 605–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blackwell, M., J.C. Moser, and J. Wisniewski, 1989, Ascospores of Pyxidiophora on mites associated with beetles in trees and wood, Mycological Research 92: 397–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Blackwell, M., J.W. Spatafora, D. Malloch, and J. W. Taylor, 1993, Consideration of higher taxonomic relationships involving Pyxidiophora, In: Ceratocystis and Ophiostoma: Taxonomy, Ecology and Pathology (M.J. Wingfield, K.A. Seifert and J.A. Webber, eds): 105–108. American Phytopathological Society Press, St Paul.Google Scholar
  14. Cain, R.F., and L.K. Weresub, 1957. Studies of coprophilous ascomycetes. V. Sphaeronaemella fimicola, Canadian Journal of Botany 35: 119–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Eriksson, O.E., and D.L. Hawksworth, 1991, Notes on ascomycete systematics — Nos 969-1127, Systema Ascornyceturn 9: 1–38.Google Scholar
  16. Hausner, G., 1993, Molecular Taxonomy of Ceratocystis sensu lato. PhD thesis, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg.Google Scholar
  17. Hausner, G., J. Reid, and G.R. Klassen, 1992, Do galeate ascospore members of the Cephaloascaceae, Endomycetaceae and Ophiostomataceae share a common phylogeny?, Mycologia 84: 870–881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hawksworth, D.L., 1985. Problems and prospects in the systematics of the Ascomycotina, Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Science, Plant Science 94: 319–339.Google Scholar
  19. Hawksworth, D.L., B.C. Sutton, and G.C. Ainsworth, 1983, Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi, 7th edition, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Slough.Google Scholar
  20. Hesseltine, C.W., 1953. Study of trickling filter fungi, Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 80: 507–514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. de Hoog, G. S., and R.J. Scheffer, 1984, Ceratocystis versus Ophiostoma: a reappraisal, Mycologia 76: 292–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lundqvist, N., 1980, On the genus Pyxidiophora sensu lato (pyrenomycetes), Botaniska Notiser 133: 121–144.Google Scholar
  23. Malloch, D., and M. Blackwell, 1990, Kathistes, a new genus of pleomorphic ascomycetes, Canadian Journal of Botany 68: 1712–1721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Malloch, D., and M. Blackwell, 1992, Dispersal of fungal diaspores, In: The Fungal Community: Its Organization and Role in the Ecosystem (G.C. Carroll and D.T. Wicklow, eds): 147–171. 2nd edition. Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  25. Malloch, D., and M. Blackwell, Dispersal biology of ophiostomatoid fungi, In: Ceratocystis and Ophiostoma: Taxonomy, Ecology and Pathology (M.J. Wingfield, K. A. Seifert and J.F. Webber, eds): 195-206. American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul.Google Scholar
  26. Parguey-Leduc, A., and M.-C. Janex-Favre, 1981, The ascocarps of ascohymenial pyrenomycetes, In: Ascomycete Systematics: The Luttrellian Concept (D.R. Reynolds, ed.): 102–123. Springer-Verlag, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Redhead, S.A., and D. Malloch, 1977, The Endomycetaceae: new concepts, new taxa, Canadian Journal of Botany 55: 1701–1711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rogerson, C.T., 1970, The hypocrealean fungi (ascomycetes, Hypocreales), Mycologia 62: 865–910.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Spatafora, J.W., 1992, The Molecular Systematics of Unitunicate, Perithecial Ascomycetes. PhD dissertation, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge.Google Scholar
  30. Spatafora, J.W., and M. Blackwell, 1993, The polyphyletic origins of ophiostomatoid fungi, Mycological Research 98: 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Swofford, D.L., 1989, PAUP — phylogenetic analysis using parsimony, version 3.0 (User’s manual and program). Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign.Google Scholar
  32. Tulasne, L.R., and C. Tulasne, 1865. Selecta Fungorum Carpologia. Vol. 3. Typographie Impériale, Paris.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Blackwell
    • 1
  • J. W. Spatafora
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BotanyLouisiana State UniversityBaton RougeUSA
  2. 2.Department of BotanyDuke UniversityDurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations