Biogeography and Ancestry of Lichens and Other Ascomycetes

  • D. J. Galloway
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 269)


Biogeography is simply defined as the study of geographical distribution of organisms; the patterns of distribution of taxa, and the processes by which these observed distributions have come about. The application of chemical and biogeographical data to the detection of ancestry in the Ascomycotina is discussed.


Linnean Society Ascomycete Fungus Shikimic Acid Pathway Lichen Flora Lichen Genus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ahmadjian, V., 1987, Coevolution in lichens, Annals of the New York Academy of Science 503: 307–315.Google Scholar
  2. Ahmadjian, V., 1992, Basic mechanisms of signal exchange, recognition, and regulation in lichens, In: Algae and Symbioses: Plants, Animals, Fungi, Viruses, Interactions Explored (W. Reisser, ed.): 675–697, Biopress, Bristol.Google Scholar
  3. Ahti, T., 1992, Biogeographic aspects of Cladoniaceae in the paramos, In: Paramo, An Andean Ecosystem under Human Influence (H. Balsev and J.L. Luteyn, eds): 111–117, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  4. Ainsworth, G.C., 1976, Introduction to the History of Mycology, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  5. Almborn, O., 1988, Some distribution patterns in the lichen flora of South Africa, Monographs on Systematic Botany, Missouri Botanical Garden 25: 429–432.Google Scholar
  6. Almborn, O., 1989, Revision of the lichen genus Teloschistes in central and southern Africa, Nordic Journal of Botany 8: 521–537.Google Scholar
  7. Almborn, O., 1992, Some overlooked or misidentified species of Teloschistes from South America and a key to the South-American species, Nordic Journal of Botany 12: 361–364.Google Scholar
  8. Armaleo, D., and P. Clerc, 1991, Lichen chimeras: DNA analysis suggests that one fungus forms two morphotypes, Experimental Mycology 15: 1–10.Google Scholar
  9. Arvidsson, L., 1983, A monograph of the lichen genus Coccocarpia, Opera Botanica 67: 1–96.Google Scholar
  10. Arvidsson, L., and D.J. Galloway, 1981, Degelia, a new lichen genus in the Pannariaceae, Lichenologist 13: 27–50.Google Scholar
  11. Berkeley, M.J., 1857, Introduction to Cryptogamic Botany, Bailliere, London.Google Scholar
  12. Bermudes, D., and R.C. Back, 1991, Symbiosis inferred from the fossil record, In: Symbiosis as a Source of Evolutionary Innovation (L. Margulis and R. Fester, eds): 72–99, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  13. Bowler, P.A., and P.W. Rundel, 1975, Reproductive strategies in lichens, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 70: 325–340.Google Scholar
  14. Breuss, O., 1993, Catapyrenium (Verrucariaceae) species from South America, Plant Systematics and Evolution 185: 17–33.Google Scholar
  15. Büdel, B., 1992, Taxonomy of lichenized procaryotic blue-green algae, In: Algae and Symbioses: Plants, Animals, Fungi, Viruses, Interactions Explored (W. Reisser, ed.): 301–324, Biopress, Bristol.Google Scholar
  16. Burrett, C, N. Duhig, R. Berry, and R. Varne, 1991, Asian and south-western Pacific continental terranes derived from Gondwana, and their biogeographic significance, Australian Systematic Botany 4: 13–24.Google Scholar
  17. Cain, R.F., 1972, Evolution of the fungi, Mycologia 64: 1–14.Google Scholar
  18. Chin, N.K.M., M.T. Brown, and M.J. Heads, 1991, The biogeography of Lessoniaceae, with special reference to Macrocystis C. Agardh (Phaeophyta: Laminarales), Hydrobiologia 215: 1–11.Google Scholar
  19. Cooper, R.A., 1989, New Zealand tectonostratigraphic terranes and panbiogeography, New Zealand Journal of Zoology 16: 699–712.Google Scholar
  20. Craw, R., 1985, Classic problems of southern hemisphere biogeography re-examined, panbiogeographic analysis of the New Zealand frog Leiopelma, the ratite birds, and Nothofagus, Zeitschrift für Zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung 23: 1–10.Google Scholar
  21. Craw, R., 1988, Panbiogeography: method and synthesis in biogeography, In: Analytical Biogeography (A.A. Myers, and P.S. Giller, eds): 405–435, Chapman and Hall, London.Google Scholar
  22. Craw, R., 1989, Quantitative panbiogeography: introduction to methods, New Zealand Journal of Zoology 16: 485–494.Google Scholar
  23. Croizat, L., 1952, Manual of Phytogeography, Junk, The Hague.Google Scholar
  24. Croizat, L., 1958, Panbiogeography, L. Croizat, Caracas.Google Scholar
  25. Culberson, C.F., W.L. Culberson, and A. Johnson, 1988, Gene flow in lichens, American Journal of Botany 75: 1135–1139.Google Scholar
  26. Culberson, W.L., 1986, Chemistry and sibling speciation in the lichen-forming fungi: ecological and biological considerations, Bryologist 89: 123–131.Google Scholar
  27. Darwin, C, 1859, On the Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection, John Murray, London.Google Scholar
  28. Demoulin, V., 1974, The origin of ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. The case for red algal ancestry, Botanical Review 40: 315–345.Google Scholar
  29. Demoulin, V., 1985, The red algal-higher fungi phylogenetic link: the last ten years, BioSystems 18: 347–356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Dick, M.W., and D.L. Hawksworth, 1982, A synopsis of the biology of the Ascomycotina, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 91: 175–179.Google Scholar
  31. Egan, R.S., 1986, Correlations and non-correlations of chemical variation patterns with lichen morphology and geography, Bryologist 89: 99–110.Google Scholar
  32. Endler, J.A., 1982a, Alternative hypotheses in biogeography: introduction and synopsis of the symposium, American Zoologist 22: 349–354.Google Scholar
  33. Endler, J.A., 1982b, Problems in distinguishing historical from ecological factors in biogeography, American Zoologist 22: 441–452.Google Scholar
  34. Eriksson, O., 1981, The families of bitunicate ascomycetes, Opera Botanica 60: 1–220.Google Scholar
  35. Feige, G.B., and M. Jensen, 1992, Basic carbon and nitrogen metabolism of lichens, In: Algae and Symbioses: Plants, Animals, Fungi, Viruses, Interactions explored (W. Reisser, ed.): 255–275. Biopress, Bristol.Google Scholar
  36. Galloway, D.J., 1979, Biogeographical elements in the New Zealand lichen flora, In: Plants and Islands (D.J. Bramwell, ed.): 201–224, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  37. Galloway, D.J., 1987, Austral lichen genera: some biogeographical problems, Bibliotheca Lichenologica 25: 385–399.Google Scholar
  38. Galloway, D.J., 1988a, Plate tectonics and the distribution of cool temperate Southern Hemisphere macrolichens, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 96: 45–55.Google Scholar
  39. Galloway, D.J., 1988b, Studies in Pseudocyphellaria (lichens) I. The New Zealand species. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Botany 17: 1–267.Google Scholar
  40. Galloway, D.J., 1991a, Phytogeography of Southern Hemisphere lichens, In: Advances in Quantitative Phytogeography (P.L. Nimis and T. Crovello, eds): 233–262, Kluwer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  41. Galloway, D.J., 1991b, Biogeographical relationships of Pacific tropical lichen floras, In: Tropical Lichens: Their Systematics, Conservation, and Ecology (D.J. Galloway, ed.): 1–16, Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  42. Galloway, D.J., 1991c, Chemical evolution in the order Peltigerales: triterpenoids, Symbiosis 11: 327–344.Google Scholar
  43. Galloway, D.J., 1992, Studies in Pseudocyphellaria (lichens) III. The South American species, Bibliotheca Lichenologica 46: 1–275.Google Scholar
  44. Galloway, D.J., and P.M. Jørgensen, 1987, Studies in the family Pannariaceae II: The genus Leioderma Nyl., Lichenologist 19: 345–400.Google Scholar
  45. Grehan, J.R., 1988, Panbiogeography: evolution in space and time, Rivista Biologia 81: 469–498.Google Scholar
  46. Grehan, J.R., 1989, New Zealand panbiogeography: past, present, and future, New Zealand Journal of Zoology 16: 513–525.Google Scholar
  47. Grehan, J.R., 1991. A panbiogeographic perspective for pre-Cretaceous angiosperm-lepidoptera coevolution, Australian Systematic Botany 4: 91–110.Google Scholar
  48. Hale, M.E., 1987, A monograph of the lichen genus Parmelia Acharius sensu stricto (Ascomycotina: Parmeliaceae), Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 66: 1–55.Google Scholar
  49. Hale. M.E., 1990, A synopsis of the lichen genus Xanthoparmelia (Vainio) Hale (Ascomycotina, Parmeliaceae), Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 74: 1–250.Google Scholar
  50. Hallbauer, D.K., H.M. Jahns, and H.A. Beltmann, 1977, Morphological and anatomical observations on some Precambrian plants from the Witwatersrand, South Africa, Geologische Rundschau 66: 477–491.Google Scholar
  51. Hawksworth, D.L., 1978, The taxonomy of lichen-forming fungi: reflections on some fundamental problems, In: Essays in Plant Taxonomy (H.E. Street, ed.): 211–243, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  52. Hawksworth, D.L., 1982, Co-evolution and the detection of ancestry in lichens, Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 52: 323–329.Google Scholar
  53. Hawksworth, D.L., 1985, Problems and prospects in the systematics of the Ascomycotina, Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Science (Plant Science) 94: 319–339.Google Scholar
  54. Hawksworth, D.L., 1988a, The variety of fungal-algal symbioses, their evolutionary significance, and the nature of lichens, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 96: 3–20.Google Scholar
  55. Hawksworth, D.L., 1988b, Co-evolution of fungi with algae and cyanobacteria in lichen symbioses, In: Co-evolution of Fungi with Plants and Animals (K.A. Pirozynski and D.L. Hawksworth, eds): 125–148, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  56. Hawksworth, D.L., 1991, The fungal dimension of biodiversity: magnitude, significance, and conservation, Mycological Research 95: 641–655.Google Scholar
  57. Hawksworth, D.L., and D.J. Hill, 1984, The Lichen-Forming Fungi, Blackie, Glasgow and London.Google Scholar
  58. Hay, A., 1992, Tribal and subtribal delimitation and circumscription of the genera of Araceae tribe Lasieae, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 79: 184–205.Google Scholar
  59. Heads, M., 1989, Integrating earth and life sciences in New Zealand natural history: the parallel arcs model, New Zealand Journal of Zoology 16: 549–585.Google Scholar
  60. Heads, M., 1990, Mesozoic tectonics and the deconstruction of biogeography: a new model of Australasian biology, Journal of Biogeography 17: 223–225.Google Scholar
  61. Heads, M., 1993, Biogeography and biodiversity in Hebe, a South Pacific genus of Scrophulariaceae, Candollea 48: 19–60.Google Scholar
  62. Henderson, I.M., 1989, Quantitative panbiogeography: an investigation into concepts and methods, New Zealand Journal of Zoology 16: 495–510.Google Scholar
  63. Henderson, I., 1991, Biogeography without area?, Australian Systematic Botany 4: 59–71.Google Scholar
  64. Holtan-Hartwig, J., 1993, The lichen genus Peltigera, exclusive of the P. canina group, in Norway, Sommerfeltia 15: 1–77.Google Scholar
  65. Honegger, R., 1991, Fungal evolution: symbiosis and morphogenesis, In: Symbiosis as a Source of Evolutionary Innovation (L. Margulis and R. Fester, eds): 319–340, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  66. Honegger, R., 1992, Lichens: mycobiont-photobiont relationships, In: Algae and Symbioses: Plants, Animals, Fungi, Viruses, Interactions Explored (W. Reisser, ed.): 255–275, Biopress, Bristol.Google Scholar
  67. Hooker, J.D., and T. Taylor, 1844, Lichenes antarctici...., London Journal of Botany 3: 634–658.Google Scholar
  68. Humphries, C.J., 1983, Biogeographical explanations and the southern beeches, In: Evolution, Time and Space: the emergence of the biosphere (R.W. Sims, J.H. Price and P.E.S. Whalley, eds): 335–365, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  69. Humphries, C.J., J.M. Cox, and E.S. Nielsen, 1986, Nothofagus, and its parasites: a cladisitic approach to coevolution, In: Coevolution and Systematics (A.R. Stone and D.L. Hawksworth, eds): 55–76, Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  70. Humphries, C.J., P.Y. Ladiges, M. Roos, and M. Zandee, 1988, Cladistic biogeography, In: Analytical Biogeography (A.A. Myers and P.S. Giller, eds): 371–404, Chapman and Hall, London.Google Scholar
  71. Humphries, C.J., and L. Parenti, 1986, Cladistic Biogeography, Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  72. James, P.W., and A. Henssen, 1976, The morphological and taxonomic significance of cephalodia, In: Lichenology: Progress and Problems (D.H. Brown, D.L. Hawksworth, and R.H. Bailey, eds): 27–77, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  73. Jørgensen, P.M., 1979, The phytogeographical relationships of the lichen flora of Tristan da Cunha (excluding Gough Island), Canadian Journal of Botany 57: 2279–2282.Google Scholar
  74. Jørgensen, P.M.,1983, Distribution patterns of lichens in the Pacific region, Australian Journal of Botany, Supplement 10: 43–66.Google Scholar
  75. Jørgensen, P.M., and P.W. James, 1990, Studies in the lichen family Pannariaceae IV: The genus Degelia, Bibliotheca Lichenologica 38: 253–276.Google Scholar
  76. Karnefelt, I., 1979, The brown fruticose species of Cetraria, Opera Botanica 46: 1–150.Google Scholar
  77. Karnefelt, I., 1989, Morphology and phylogeny in the Teloschistales, Cryptogamic Botany 1: 147–203.Google Scholar
  78. Karnefelt, I., 1990a, Isidiate taxa in the Teloschistales and their ecological and evolutionary significance, Lichenologist 22: 307–320.Google Scholar
  79. Käraefelt, I., 1990b, Evidence of a slow evolutionary change in the speciation of lichens, Bibliotheca Lichenologica 38: 291–306.Google Scholar
  80. Käraefelt, I., 1991, Evolutionary rates in the Teloschistaceae, In: Tropical Lichens: their systematics, conservation and ecology (D.J. Galloway, ed.): 105–121, Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  81. Kärnefelt, I., J.-E. Mattson, and A. Thell, 1992, Evolution and phylogeny of cetrarioid lichens, Plant Systematics and Evolution 183: 113–160.Google Scholar
  82. Käraefelt, I., and A. Thell, 1992, The evaluation of characters in lichenized families, exemplified with the alectorioid and some parmelioid genera, Plant Systematics and Evolution 180: 181–204.Google Scholar
  83. Kendrick, B., 1991, Fungal symbioses and evolutionary innovations, In: Symbiosis as a Source of Evolutionary Innovation (L. Margulis and R. Fester, eds): 249–260, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  84. Khakina, L.N., 1992, Concepts of Symbiogenesis. A historical and critical study of the research of Russian botanists. Yale University Press, New Haven.Google Scholar
  85. Korf, R.P., 1983, Cyttaria (Cyttariales): coevolution with Nothofagus and evolutionary relationships to the Boedijnopezizeae (Pezizales, Sarcoscyphaceae), Australian Journal of Botany Supplement 10: 77–87.Google Scholar
  86. Lamb, I.M., 1947, A monograph of the lichen genus Placopsis Nyl., Lilloa 13: 151–288.Google Scholar
  87. Lindsay, W.L., 1856, A Popular History of British Lichens, Lovell Reeve, London.Google Scholar
  88. Markham, K.R., and L.J. Porter, 1978, Chemical constituents of the bryophytes, Progress in Phytochemistry 5: 181–272.Google Scholar
  89. Mattson, J.-E., and H.T. Lumbsch, 1989, The use of the species pair concept in lichen taxonomy, Taxon 38: 238–241.Google Scholar
  90. Michaux, B., 1989, Generalized tracks and geology, Systematic Zoology 38: 390–398.Google Scholar
  91. Nylander, W.L., 1858, Synopsis Methodica Lichenum. Vol. 1, Martinet, Paris.Google Scholar
  92. Ourisson, G., M. Rohmer, and R. Anton, 1979, From terpenes to sterols: macroevolution and microevolution, Recent Advances in Phytochemistry 24: 283–327.Google Scholar
  93. Page, R.D.M., 1989, New Zealand and the new biogeography, New Zealand Journal of Zoology 16: 471–483.Google Scholar
  94. Pirozynski, K.A., 1983, Pacific mycogeography: an appraisal, Australian Journal of Botany Supplement 10: 137–159.Google Scholar
  95. Pirozynski, K.A., and L.K. Weresub, 1979, A biogeographic view of the history of ascomycetes and the development of their pleomorphism, In: The Whole Fungus (B. Kendrick, ed.) 1: 93–125, National Museums of Canada, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  96. Schopf, J.W., and M.R. Walter, 1982, Origin and early evolution of cyanobacteria: the geological evidence, Botanical Monographs 19: 543–564.Google Scholar
  97. Sheard, J.W., 1977, Palaeogeography, chemistry and taxonomy of the lichenized ascomycetes Dimelaeana and Thamnolia, Bryologist 80: 100–118.Google Scholar
  98. Sherwood-Pike, M.A., 1985, Pelicothallus Dilcher, an overlooked fossil lichen, Lichenologist 17: 114–115.Google Scholar
  99. Sherwood-Pike, M.A., and J. Gray, 1985, Silurian fungal remains: probable records of the class Ascomycetes, Lethaia 18: 1–20.Google Scholar
  100. Sipman, H.J.M., 1992, The origin of the lichen flora of the Colombian paramos, In: Paramo, an Andean Ecosystem under Human Influence (H. Balsev and J.L. Luteyn, eds): 95–109, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  101. Smith, A.L., 1921, Lichens, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  102. Smith, C.H., 1989, Historical biogeography: geography as evolution, evolution as geography, New Zealand Journal of Zoology 16: 773–785.Google Scholar
  103. Smith, D.C., 1978, What can lichens tell us about real fungi? Mycologia 70: 915–934.Google Scholar
  104. Smith, D.C., and A.E. Douglas, 1987, The Biology of Symbiosis, Edward Arnold, London.Google Scholar
  105. Stenroos, S., 1991, The lichen genera Parmelia and Punctelia in Tierra del Fuego, Annales Botanici Fennici 28: 241–245.Google Scholar
  106. Stenroos, S., and T. Ahti, 1990, The lichen family Cladoniaceae in Tierra del Fuego: problematic or otherwise noteworthy taxa, Annales Botanici Fennici 27: 317–327.Google Scholar
  107. Tehler, A., 1983, The genera Dirina and Roccellina (Roccellaceae), Opera Botanica 70: 1–86.Google Scholar
  108. Tehler, A., 1988, A cladistic outline of the Eumycota, Cladistics 4: 227–277.Google Scholar
  109. Thor, G., 1990, The lichen genus Chiodecton and five allied genera, Opera Botanica 103: 1–92.Google Scholar
  110. Wallace, A.R., 1855, On the law which has regulated the introduction of new species, Annals and Magazine of Natural History, ser. 2, 16: 184–196.Google Scholar
  111. Watson, W., 1759, An historical memoir concerning a genus of plants called Lichen by Micheli, Haller, and Linnaeus; and comprehended by Dillenius under the terms Usnea, Coralloides, and Lichenoides: tending principally to illustrate their several uses, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 50: 652–688.Google Scholar
  112. White, F.J., and P.W. James, 1988, Studies on the genus Nephroma II. The southern temperate species, Lichenologist 20: 103–166.Google Scholar
  113. Wilson, J.B., 1991, A comparison of biogeographic models: migration, vicariance and panbiogeography, Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 1: 84–87.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. J. Galloway
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BotanyThe Natural History MuseumLondonUK

Personalised recommendations