Antigenic and Genetic Variation of Influenza A(H1N1) Viruses

  • Alan P. Kendal
  • Nancy J. Cox
  • Maurice W. Harmon
Part of the Applied Virology Research book series (AVIR, volume 2)


In 1977, type A(H1N1) influenza virus, related to strains that had circulated in 1950, reappeared and spread worldwide as a true pandemic virus. Summary reports to the World Health Organization showed that after detection in northern China in May 1977, the virus appeared in contiguous countries to the north and south in November of that year and spread across the temperate zones of the Northern Hemisphere during the following winter. Simultaneously, the virus appeared in tropical zones and spread early in the Southern Hemisphere winter season to temperate countries in the south Pacific and south Atlantic zones (Fig. 1).


Influenza Virus Reference Strain H3N2 Virus Epidemic Strain Major Outbreak 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan P. Kendal
    • 1
  • Nancy J. Cox
    • 1
  • Maurice W. Harmon
    • 1
  1. 1.Influenza Branch, Division of Viral Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease ControlAtlantaUSA

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