The Molecular Epidemiology of Dengue Viruses

Genetic Variation and Microevolution
  • Dennis W. Trent
  • Charles L. Manske
  • George E. Fox
  • May C. Chu
  • Srisakul C. Kliks
  • Thomas P. Monath
Part of the Applied Virology Research book series (AVIR, volume 2)


Dengue (DEN) fever is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus disease of humans which has affected untold millions of people over the world during the past two centuries (reviewed by Schlesinger, 1979; Gubler, 1988). The DEN viruses occur as four distinct serotypes, which can be serologically (Westaway et al., 1985; De Madrid and Porterfield, 1974) and biochemically differentiated (Vezza et al., 1980; Blok, 1985; Blok et al., 1984). The viruses are most frequently transmitted from viremic humans to susceptible humans by the bite of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes (reviewed by Gubler, 1988). Subsequent studies in the Philippines, Indonesia, and the Pacific Islands showed that Ae. albopictus and Ae. polynesiensis are efficient vectors of DEN viruses. In Malaysia, Vietnam, and Africa there is evidence that a forest maintenance cycle for DEN virus exists in which the virus is maintained in a cycle involving canopy-dwelling Aedes spp. and wild monkeys (Siler et al., 1926; Rudnick, 1965). Potential vector Aedes spp. are found throughout the tropics, where more than half the world population live in conditions that frequently expose them to mosquito bites (Halstead, 1980, 1988). Since the end of World War II, the incidence of DEN fever has increased dramatically with the increase in air travel, the introduction of multiple serotypes of virus to many parts of the world, urbanization of the tropics, the breakdown of effective mosquito control programs, and the deterioration of public health programs due to economic and social problems in many areas of the world (Halstead, 1988; Gubler, 1987, 1988). Because of these conditions, DEN fever is currently the most important arthropod-borne viral disease of humans in terms of both morbidity and mortality (Halstead, 1988). Coincident with the increase in number of cases has been the appearance and spread of a severe, sometimes fatal form of the infection designated DEN hemorrhagic fever and DEN shock syndrome (DHF/DSS; Technical Advisory Group on Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever/Dengue Shock Syndrome, 1986). Since the early 1960s, DHF/DSS has been the major cause of death among children in Southeast Asia (WHO, 1986a,b) and, in recent years, of increasing concern in the Pacific Islands and the Caribbean (Guzman et al., 1984a,b).


Virus Strain West Nile Virus Dengue Virus Dengue Fever Molecular Epidemiology 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dennis W. Trent
    • 1
  • Charles L. Manske
    • 2
  • George E. Fox
    • 2
  • May C. Chu
    • 1
  • Srisakul C. Kliks
    • 3
  • Thomas P. Monath
    • 4
  1. 1.Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Public Health ServiceU.S. Department of Health and Human ServicesFort CollinsUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biochemical and Biophysical SciencesUniversity of HoustonHoustonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Biomedical and Environmental Health SciencesUniversity of California, School of Public HealthBerkeleyUSA
  4. 4.SGRD-UIV, Virology DivisionUSAMRIIDFort Derrick, FrederickUSA

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