Laser Mass Spectral Analysis of Rubber Surfaces

  • Walter H. Waddell

Abstract

The identification of compounding ingredients in elastomers is a complex task that is the subject of considerable interest to analytical chemists in the tire and rubber industries.1, 2 Of particular interest is the nondestructive, direct characterization of uncured rubber samples and cured rubber compounds. Pyrolysis mass spectrometry (MS) has been an important technique used to identify the microstructure of synthetic polymers,3–5but the technique is a destructive method. Lattimer and Harris6–8 have reviewed a number of mass spectral techniques that have been successfully applied to the analysis of rubber additives, either by direct analysis of the polymer surface or indirectly after extraction of the rubber ingredients by using a solvent, for example.

Keywords

Natural Rubber Rubber Compound Mass Spectral Peak Laser Desorption Mass Spectroscopy High Molecular Weight Material 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    For a review see: A. Krishen, Anal. Chem., 61, 238R (1989).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    For a review see: A. Krishen, Anal. Chem., 59, 114R (1987).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    For a review see: C. G. Smith, R. A. Nyquist, S. J. Martin, N. H. Mahle, P. B. Smith and A. J. Pasztor, Jr., Anal. Chem., 61, 214R (1989).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    For a review see: P. J. Gale, B. L. Bentz and W. L. Harrington, RCA Rev., 47, 380 (1986).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    For a review see: D. H. Ahlstrom, Chromatogr. Sci., 29, 209 (1985).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. P. Lattimer and R. E. Harris, Rubber Chem. Technol, 62, 548 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    R. P. Lattimer and R. E. Harris, Mass Spectrom. Rev., 4, 369 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    R. P. Lattimer and R. E. Harris, Rubber Chem. Technol, 58, 577 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. W. Hayes and A. G. Altenau, Rubber Age, May, 1970, p. 59.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. S. Hilton and A. G. Altenau, Rubber Chem. Technol, 46, 1036 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. Pierre and J. van Bree, Kunststoffe, 73, 319 (1983).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    A. J. Aarts and K. M. Baker, Kautsch. Gummi. Kunstst., 37, 410 (1984).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    W. P. Duncan, Amer. Lab., August, 1988, p. 40.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    R. P. Lattimer, R. E. Harris, C. K. Rhee and H. R. Schulten, Anal Chem., 58, 3188 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    R. P. Lattimer, R. E. Harris, C. K. Rhee and H. R. Schulten, Rubber Chem. Technol, 61, 639 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    R. P. Lattimer, Rubber Chem. Technol, 61, 658 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    R. P. Lattimer, H. Muenster and H. Budzikiewicz, Rubber Chem. Technol, 63, 298 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    For a review see: R. J. Conzemius and J. M. Capellen, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys., 34, 197 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    For a review see: R. J. Cotter, Anal Chemica Acta, 195, 45 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    M. Comisarow and A. G. Marshall, Chem. Phys. Lett., 25, 282 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. Comisarow and A. G. Marshall, Chem. Phys. Lett., 25, 489 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    For example see: R. Kaufmann, F. Hillenkamp and R. Wechsung, Med. Prog. Technol, 6, 109 (1979).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    For example see: T. Dingle, B. W. Griffiths, J. C. Ruckman and C. A. Evans, Microbeam Analysis-1982, p. 365.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    For a review see: A. G. Marshall, “Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry”, CRC Press, Inc., 1984, Chapter 2.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    For a review see: P. G. Kistemaker, A. J. H. Boerboom and H. L. C. Meuzelaar, “Dynamic Mass Spectrometry, Vol. 4”, Heyden, London, 1976, Chapter 9.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    J. A. Gardella, Jr., D. M. Hercules and H. J. Heinen, Spectros. Lett., 13, 347 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    J. A. Gardella, Jr. and D. M. Hercules, Fresenius Z. Anal Chem., 308, 297 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    S. W. Graham and D. M. Hercules, Spectros. Lett., 15, 1 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    For a review see: J. A. Gardella, Jr., S. W. Graham and D. M. Hercules, Adv. Chem. Ser., Polym. Charact, 203, 635 (1983).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    For a review see: D. M. Hercules, “Microbeam Analysis-1989”, P. E. Russell, ed., San Francisco Press, p. 343.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    R. Srinivasan and W. J. Leigh, J. Am. Chem. Soc, 104, 6784 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    R. Srinivasan and V. Mayne-Banton, Appl. Phys. Lett., 41, 576 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Y. Kawamura, K. Toyoda and S. Namba, Appl. Phys. Lett., 40, 374 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Y. Kawamura, K. Toyoda and S. Namba, J. Appl. Phys., 53, 6489 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    J. T. Brenna, “Microbeam Analysis-1989”, P. E. Russell, ed., San Francisco Press, p. 306.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    S. G. Hansen, J. Appl. Phys., 66, 1411 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    S. G. Hansen, J. Appl. Phys., 66, 3329 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    R. S. Brown, D. A. Weil, C. L. Wilkins, Macromolecules, 19, 1255 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    R. C. Estler and N. S. Nogar, J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B5, 1465 (1987).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    R. Holm, M. Karas and H. Vogt, Anal. Chem., 59, 373 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    T. F. Magnera, V. Balaji, J. Michl, R. D. Miller, and R. Sooriyakumaran, Macromolecules, 22, 1624 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    L. M. Siperko, W. R. Creasy and J. T. Brenna, J. Vac. Sci. Technol, A7, 1750 (1989).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    W. R. Creasy and J. T. Brenna, J. Chem. Phys., 92, 2269 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    C. E. Brown, P. Kovacic, C. A. Wilkie, R. B. Cody, R. E. Hein and J. A. Kinsinger, Polym. Mater. Sci. Eng., 54, 307 (1986).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    R. J. Cotter, J. P. Honovich, J. K. Olthoff and R. P. Lattimer, Macromolecules, 19, 2996 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    D. E. Mattern and D. M. Hercules, Anal. Chem., 57, 2041 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    J. B. Pallix, U. Schuhle, C. H. Becker and D. L. Huestis, Anal Chem., 61, 805 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    K. Tanaka, H. Waki, Y. Ido, S. Akita, Y. Yoshida and T. Yoshida, Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 2, 151 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    C. L. Wilkins, D. A. Weil, C. L. C. Yang and C. F. Ijames, Anal Chem., 57, 520 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    G. Krier, M. Pelletetier, J. F. Müller, S. Lazarre, V. Granier and P. Lutgen, “Microbeam Analysis-1989”, P. E. Russell, ed., San Francisco Press, p. 347.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    W. R. Creasy and J. T. Brenna, “Polyimides: Materials, Chemistry and Characterization”, C. Feger, M. M. Khojasteh and J. E. McGrath, eds., Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 1989, p. 635.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    P. E. Dyer and R. Srinivasan, Appl Phys. Lett, 48, 445 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    R. W. Odom, F. R. di Brozolo, P. B. Harrington and K. J. Voorhees, “Microbeam Analysis-1989”, P. E. Russell, ed., San Francisco Press, p. 283.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    C. E. Otis, Appl. Phys., B49, 455 (1989).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    C. E. Brown, C. A. Wilkie, J. Smukalla, R. B. Cody, Jr., and J. A. Kinsinger, J. Polym. Sci., A: Polym. Chem., 24, 1297 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    B. Danielzik, N. Fabricius, M. Rowekamp, and D. von der Linde, Appl Phys. Lett, 48, 212 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    R. C. Estler and N. S. Nogar, Appl Phys. Lett, 49, 1175 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    R. Larciprete and M. Stuke, Appl. Phys., B42, 181 (1987).Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    F. R. Verdun, G. Krier and J. F. Muller, Anal Chem., 59, 1383 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    C. E. Brown, P. Kovacic, R. B. Cody, Jr., R. E. Hein and J. A. Kinsinger, J. Polym. Sci. C: Polym. Lett, 24, 519 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    C. E. Brown, P. Kovacic, C. A. Wilkie, R. B. Cody, Jr., R. E. Hein and J. A. Kinsinger, Synthetic Metals, 15, 265 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    C. E. Brown, P. Kovacic, K. J. Welch, R. B. Cody, R. E. Hein and J. A. Kinsinger, Arabian J. Sci. Eng., 13, 163 (1988).Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    U. Brinkmann, Laser Focus, 24, 79 (1988).Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    S. M. Daiser, D. G. Welkie and C. H. Becker, Amer. Lab., Jan. 1990, p. 54.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    D. Feldmann, J. Kutzner, J. Kaukemper, S. MacRobert and K. H. Welge, Appl. Phys., B44, 81 (1987).Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    B. Asamoto, J. R. Young and R. J. Citerin, Anal. Chem., 62, 61 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    C. L. Johlman, C. L. Wilkins, J. D. Hogan, T. L. Donovan, D. A. Laude, Jr., and M. J. Youssefi, Anal. Chem., 62, 1167 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    H. J. Heinen, S. Meier, H. Vogt and R. Wechsung, Fresenius Z. Anal. Chem. 308, 290 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    K. Kurosaki, A. Toba, M. Yasutake, T. Adachi and H. J. Heinen, Springer Ser. Chem. Phys., 36, 395 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    A. T. Hsu and A. G. Marshall, Anal. Chem., 60, 932 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    W. H. McClennen, J. M. Richards, H. L. C. Meuzelaar, J. B. Pausch and R. P. Lattimer, Polym. Materials Sci. Eng., 53, 203 (1985).Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    W. H. Waddell, K. A. Benzing, L. R. Evans, S. K. Mowdood, J. M. McMahon, R. H. Cody, Jr. and J. A. Kinsinger, Rubber Chem. Technol, 64, 622 (1991); in press.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    R. P. Lattimer, R. E. Harris, D. B. Ross and H. E. Diem, Rubber Chem. Technol, 57, 1013 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    R. P. Lattimer, E. R. Hooser, R. W. Layer and C. K. Rhee, Rubber Chem. Technol, 56, 431 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Walter H. Waddell
    • 1
  1. 1.Chemicals Group Technical CenterPPG IndustriesMonroevilleUSA

Personalised recommendations