Zidovudine: Anno 1995

  • Sven A. Danner
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 394)

Abstract

In early 1987 treatment of symptomatic HIV-infected patients was improved by the availability and licensing of the nucleoside analogue zidovudine (ZDV, AZT, Retrovir®) as the first anti-retroviral drug in most countries of the developed world. Although more compounds have become available since then, zidovudine remains a cornerstone of therapy for HIV infection. In most countries zidovudine monotherapy is still the first choice for HIV-infected patients who have become symptomatic or who have developed a CD4 lymphocyte count beneath 500/mm3.

Keywords

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Zidovudine Therapy Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Yarchoan R, Klecker RW, Weinhold KJ, et al. Administration of 3’-azido-3’-deoxythymidine, an inhibitor of HTLV-III/LAV replication, to patients with AIDS or AIDS-related complex. Lancet 1986; i:575–80.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fischl MA, Richman DD, Grieco MH, et al, and the AZT Collaborative Working Group. The efficacy of azidothymidine (AZT) in the treatment of patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. N Engl J Med 1987; 317: 185–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fischl MA, Richman DD, Causey DM, et al, and the AZT Collaborative Working Group. Prolonged zidovudine therapy in patients with AIDS and advanced AIDS-related complex. JAMA 1989; 262: 240510.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Richman DD, Andrews J. Results of continued monitoring of participants in the placebo-controlled trial of zidovudine for serious human immunodeficiency virus infection. Am J Med 1988; 85: 208–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fischi MA, Richman DD, Hansen N, et al, and the AIDS Clinical Trials Group. The safety and efficacy of zidovudine (AZT) in the treatment of patients with mildly symptomatic HIV infection. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial. The AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Ann Int Med 1990; 112: 727–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Graham NMH, Zeger SL, Park LP, et al, and the Multiple AIDS Cohort Study. Effect of zidovudine and Pneumocystis carini pneumonia prophylaxis on progression of HIV-1 infection to AIDS. Lancet 1991; 338: 265–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lundgren JD, Philips AN, Pedersen C, et al. Comparison of long-term prognosis of patients with AIDS treated and not treated with zidovudine. JAMA 1994; 271: 1088–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ragni MV, Kingsley LA, Zhou SJ. The effect of antiviral therapyon the natural history of human immunodeficiency virus infection in a cohort of haemophiliacs. J AIDS 1992; 5: 120–6.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Swanson CE, Tindall B, Cooper DA, for the Australian Zidovudine Study Group. Efficacy of zidovudine treatment in homosexual men with AIDS-related complex: factors influencing development of AIDS, survival and drug intolerance. AIDS 1994• 8: 625–34.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Portegies P, De Gans J, Lange JMA, et al. Declining incidence of of AIDS dementia complex after introduction of zidovudine treatment. Br Med J 1989; 299: 819–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Portegies P, Enting RH, De Gans J, et al. Presentation and course of AIDS dementia complex: 10 years of follow-up in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. AIDS 1993; 7: 669–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tozzi V, Narciso P, Galgani S, Sette P, Balestra P, Gerace c, Pau FM, Pigorini F, Volpini V, Camporiondo MP, Giulianelli M, Visco G. Effects of zidovudine in 30 patients with mild to end-stage AIDS dementia complex. AIDS 1993; 7: 683–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brouwers P, Moss H, Wolters P. Effect of contunuous-infusion zidovudine therapy on neuropsychologic functioning in children with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Pediatr 1990; 117: 980–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    McKinney RE, Maha MA, Connor EM, Feinberg J, Scott GB, Wulfsohn M, McIntosh K, Borkofsky W, Modlin JF, Weintrub P, O’Donnell K, Gelber RD, Rogers GK, Lehrman SN, Wilfert CM, and the Protocol 043 Study Group. A multicenter trial of oral zidovudine in children with advanced immunodeficiency virus disease. N Engl J Med 1991; 324: 1018–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nozyce M, Hoberman M, Arpadi S, et al. A 12-month study of the effects of oral zidovudine on neurodevelopmental functioning in a cohort of vertically-infected inner-city children. AIDS 1994; 8: 635–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tartaglione TA, Collier AC, Coombs RW, et al. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Cerebrospinal fluid findings in patients before and during long-term oral zidovudine therapy. Arch Neurol 1991; 48: 695–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Leeuwen R van, van den Huck PJ, Jöbsis GJ, et al. Failure to maintain high-dose treatment regimens during long-term use of zidovudine in patients with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Genitourin Med 1990; 66: 418–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fischi MA, Parker CB, Pettinelli C, et al, and the AIDS Clinical Trials Group. A randomized controlled trial of a reduced daily dose of zidovudine inpatients with acquired immunodeficiency symdrome. New Engl J Med 1990; 323: 1009–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Collier AC, Bozzette S, Coombs RW, et al. A pilot study of low-dose zidovudine in human immunodeficiency virus infection. New Engl J Med 1990; 323: 1015–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nordic Medical Research Council’s HIV Therapy Group. Double blind dose-response study of zidovudine in AIDS and advanced HIV infection. Br Med J 1992; 304: 13–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Petrella M, Olivier C, Klein A, et al. Retrovir 300 mg bid versus 100 mg q 4h: a randomised, double-blind pilot study of safety and tolerance. Abstract. IXth International Conference on AIDS. Berlin, June 6–11, 1993.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sidtis JJ, Gatsonis C, Price RW, et al, and the AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Zidovudine treatment of the AIDS dementia complex: results of a placebo-controlled trial. Ann Neurol 1993; 33: 343–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Vago L, Castagna A, Lazzarin A, et al. Reduced frequency of HIV-induced brain lesions in AIDS patients tretaed with zidovudine. J AIDS 1993; 6: 42–5.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Portegies P, Enting RH, de Jong MD, et al. AIDS dementia complex and didanosine (letter). Lancet 1994; 344: 759.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Portegies P. AIDS dementia complex: a review. J AIDS 1994; 7: S38 - S49.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Oksenhendler E, Bierling P, Ferchal F, et al. Zidovudine for thrombocytopenic purpura related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Aim Int Med 1989; 110: 365–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Landonio G, Cinque P, Nosari A, et al. Comparison of two dose regimens of zidovudine in an open, randomized, multicentre study for severe HIV-related thrombocytopenia. AIDS 1993; 7: 209–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Pechère M, Samii K, Kaiser L, et al. Relapse of HIV-related thrombocytopenia (HIV-TCP) after switching from zidovudine (zdv) tot didanosine (ddI). Abstract. IXth International Conference on AIDS. Berlin, June 6–11, 1993.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Volberding PA, Lagakos SW, Koch MA, et al, and the AIDS Clinical Trials Group of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Zidovudine in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection. A controlled trial in persons with fewer than 500 CD4-positive cells per cubic millimeter. N Engl J Med 1990; 322: 941–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Volberding PA, Lagakos SW, Grimes JW, et al, for the AIDS Clinical Trials Group of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. The duration of zidovudine benefit in persons with asymptomatic HIV infection. Prolonged evaluation of protocol 019 of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group. JAMA 1994; 272: 437–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Vella S, Guiliano M, Dally LG, et al, and the Italian Zidovudine Evaluation Group. Long-term follow-up of zidovudine therapy in asymptomatic HIV infection: results of a multicentre cohort study. J AIDS 1994; 7: 31–8.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hamilton JD, Haitian PM, Simberkoff MS,et al, and the Veteran Affairs Cooperative Study Group on AIDS Treatment. A controlled trial of early versus late treatment with zidovudine in symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection. Results of the Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study. N Engl J Med 1992; 326: 437–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Graham NMH, Zeger SL, Park LP, et al. The effects on survival of early treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med 1992; 326: 1037–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mulder JW, Cooper DA, Mathiesen L, et al, and the European-Australian Collaboratove Group (Study 017). Zidovudine twice daily in asymptomatic subjects with HIV infection and a high risk of progression to AIDS: a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled study. AIDS 1994; 8: 313–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Aboulker JP, Swart AM. Preliminary analysis of the Concorde trial (letter). Lancet 1993; 341: 889–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Concorde Coordinating Committee. Concorde: MRC/ANRS randomised double-blind controlled trial of immediate and deferred zidovudine in symptom-free HIV infection. Lancet 1994; 343: 871–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cooper DA, Gatell JM, Kroon S, et al, and the European-Australian Collaborative Group. Zidovudine in persons with asymptomatic HIV infection and CD4+ cell counts greater than 400 per cubic millimeter. N Engl J Med 1993; 329: 297–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Danner SA. The concorde trial (letter). Lancet 1993; 341: 1276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Graham NMH. Concorde trial of immediate versus deferred zidovudine (letter). Lancet 1994; 343: 13556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gore SM, Bird AG. Concorde trial of immediate versus deferred zidovudine (letter). Lancet 1994; 343: 1357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hirschel B. Concorde trial of immediate versus deferred zidovudine (letter). Lancet 1994; 343: 1357–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Altman DG, Cuzick J, Peto J. More on zidovudine in asymptomatic HIV infection (letter). N Engl J Med 1994; 330: 1758–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lipsky JJ. Concorde lands. Lancet 1994; 343: 866–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Pinching AJ. Zidovudine in asyptomatic HIV infection: knowledge and uncertainty. Int J STD and AIDS 1994; 2: 157–61.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bartlett JG. Zidovudine now or later? N Engl J Med 1993; 329: 351–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Havlir D, Richman DD. Zidovudine should be given before HIV-positive individuals develop symptoms. Rev Med Virology 1994; 4: 75–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gazzard BG. After Concorde. Br Med J 1994; 306: 1016–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Wilde MI, Langtry HD. Zidovudine. An update of its pharmacodynamie and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic efficacy. Drugs 1993; 46: 515–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Mazzulli T, Rusconi S, Merrill DP, et al. Alternating versus continuous drug regimens in combination chemotherapy of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemotherap 1994; 38: 656–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kahn JO, Lagakos SW, Richman DD, et al, and the NIAD AIDS Clincal Trials Group. A controlled trial comparing continued zidovudine with didanosine in human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med 1992; 327: 581–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Montaner JSG, Wainberg M, Rachlis A, et al. A dduble blind study of ddI vs. continued AZT HIV+ individuals with CD4 counts 200 to 500 cells/mm treated with AZT for 36 months. Abstract. IXth International Conference on AIDS. Berlin, June 6–11, 1993.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Evans T, Ries K, Cross A, et al, and the Bristol AI545–010 Group. Switching to DDI is superior to continued AZT for patients with progressive symptoms. Results of Bristol study 010. Abstract. IXth International Conference on AIDS. Berlin, June 6–11, 1993.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Dolin R, Amato D, Fischi MA, et al. Efficacy of didanosine (ddl) versus zidovudine (ZDV) in patient with no or 16 weeks of prior ZDV therapy. Abstract. IXth International Conference on AIDS. Berlin, June 6–11, 1993.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Collier AN, Coomb RW, Fischi MA, et al. Combination therapy with zidovudine and didanosine compared with zidovudine alone in HIV-1 infection. Ann Int Med 1993; 119: 786–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Yarchoan R, Jill A, Nguyen BY, et al. A randomised pilot study of alternating or simultaneous zidovudine and didanosine therapy in patients with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Inf Dis 1994; 169: 9–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Eron JJ, Johnson VA, Merrill DP, et al. Synergistic inhibition of replication of human immunodeficiency virus type I, including that of a zidovudine-resistant isolate, byzidovudine and 2’,3’-dideoxycytidine in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1992; 36: 1559–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Yarchoan R, Perno CF, Thomas RV, et al. Phase I studies of 2’,3’-dideoxycytidine in severe human immunodeficiency virus infection as a single agent and alternating with zidovudine (AZT). Lancet 1988; i:76–81.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Merigan TC, Skowron G, Bozzette S, et al, and the ddC Study Group of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Circulating p24 antigen levels and rsponses to dideoxycytidine in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. A phase I and II study. Ann Int Med 1989; 110: 189–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Meng TC, Fischi A, Boota AM, et al. Combination therapy with zidovudine and dideoxycytidine in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection. Ann Int Med 1992; 116: 13–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Fisch’ MA, Olson RM, Follansbee SE, et al. Zalcitabine compared with zidovudine in patients with advanced HIV-1 infection who received previous zidovudine therapy. Ann Int Med 1993; 118: 762–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Fischl MA, Stanley K, Collier AC, et al, and the NIAD AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Combination and monotherapy with zidovudine and zalcitabine in patients with advanced HIV disease. Ann Int Med 1995; 122: 24–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Leeuwen van R, Lange JMA, Hussey EK, et al. The safety and pharmacokinetics of a reverse transcriptase inhibitor, 3TC, in patients with HIV infection: a phase I study_ AIDS 1992; 6: 1471–5.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Leeuwen van R, Katlama C, Kitchen V, et al. Evaluation of safety and efficacy of 3TC (lamivudine) in patients with asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection: a phase I/II study. J Infect Dis 1995; 171: (in press).Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Katlama C, The European Lamivudine HIV Working Group. Combination 3TC (lamivudine)/ZDV 3 (zidovudine) vs. ZDV monotherapy in ZDV-naive HIV-1 positive patients with CD4 of 100–400/mm. Abstract. AIDS 1994;8: suppl 4, S6.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Staszewski S, The European Lamivudine HIV Working Group. Combination 3TC (lamivudine)/ZDV (zidovudine) vs. ZDV monotherapy in ZDV-pre-treated HIV-1 positive patients with CD4 of 100400/mm. Abstract. AIDS 1994;8: suppl 4, S7.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    De Wit R, Schattenkerk JKM, Boucher CA. et al. Clinical and virological effects of high-dose recombinant interferon-alpha in diiseminated AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma. Lancet 1988; ii:1214–7.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lane HC, Kovacs JA. Feinberg J, et al. Anti-retroviral effects of interferon-alpha in AIDS-associated Kaposi’s sarcoma. Lancet 1988; ii:1218–22.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Krown SE, Gold JWM, Niedzwiecki D, et al. Interferon-a with zidovudine: safety, tolerance, and clinical and virologic effects inpatients with Kaposi sarcoma associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Ann Int Med 1990; 112: 812–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Harthhorn KL, Vogt MW, Ting-Chao C. Synergistic inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus in vitro by azidothymidine and recombinant alpha interferon. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1987; 31: 168–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Edlin BR, Weinstein RA, Whaling SM, et al. Zidovudine -interferon-a combination in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection: biphasic response of p24 antigen and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. J Infect Dis 1992; 165: 793–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Frissen PHJ, van der Ende ME, Ten Napel CHH, Weigel HM, Schreij GS, Kauffmann RH, Koopmans PP, Hoepelman AIM, de Boer JB, Weverling GJ, Haverkamp G, Dowd P, Miedema F, Schuurman R, Boucher CAB, Lange JMA. Zidovudine and interferon-a combination therapy versus zidovudine monotherapy in subjects with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Infect Dis 1994; 169: 1351–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Mitsuya H, Broder S. Strategies for antiviral therapy in AIDS. nature 1987; 325: 773–8.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Mitsuya H, Matsukura M, Broder S. Rapid in vitro systems for assessing activity of agents against HTLVIII/LAV. In: Broder S. ed. AIDS: modern concepts and therapeutic challenges. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1987: 303–33.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Smith MS, Pagano JS. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by guanosine analogues and lack of synergistic antiviral activity with 3’-azido-3’-deoxythymidine. Antiviral Chem Chemother 1991; 2: 29–34.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Cooper DA, Pehrson PO, Pedersen C, et al, and a European-Australian Collaborative Group. The efficacy and safety of zidovudine alone or as cotherapy with acyclovir for the treatment of patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex: a double-blind, randomized trial. AIDS 1993; 7: 197–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Youle MS, Gazzard BG, Johnson MA, et al. Effects of high-dose oral acyclovir on herpes virus disease and survival in patients with advanced HIV disease: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. AIDS 1994; 8: 641–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Stein DS, Graham MNH, Park LP, Hoover DR, Phair JP, Detels R, Ho M, Saah AJ for the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. The effect of the interaction of acyclovir with zidovudine on progression to AIDS and survival. Ann Int Med 1994; 121: 100–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 77a.
    Collier AC, Schoenfeld DA, Bourland D, Hirsch M, Davis LG, Corey L and the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG). Prospective Comparative Study of Acyclovir (ACV) and Zidovudine (ZDV) Alone in Patients with AIDS. Abstracts of the 2nd National Conference on Human Retroviruses January, 1995;Google Scholar
  79. 77b.
    Gallant JE, Moore RD, Richman DD, et al, Zidovudine Epidemology Study Group. Lack of Association Between Acyclovir Use and Survival in Patients with Advanced HIV Disease Treated with Zidovudine. Abstracts of the 2nd National Conference on Human Retroviruses. January, 1995;Google Scholar
  80. 78.
    Heng MC, Heng SY, Allen SG. Co-infection and synergy of human immunodeficiency virus-1 and herpes simplex virus-1. Lancet 1994; 343: 255–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 79.
    Cheeseman S, and the ACTG 164/168 Study Team. Nevirapine (NVP) alone and in combination with zidovudine (ZVD): safety and activity. Abstract. VIIIth International conference on AIDS. Amsterdam, July 19–24 1992.Google Scholar
  82. 80.
    Richman DD, and the ACTG 164/168 Study Team. Loss of nevirapine activity associated with the emergence of resistance in clinical trials. Abstract. VIIIth International conference on AIDS. Amsterdam, July 19–24 1992.Google Scholar
  83. 81.
    Havlir D, and the ACTG 164/168 Study Team. Antiviral activity of nevirapine at 400 mg in p24 antigen-positive adults. Abstract. VIIIth International conference on AIDS. Amsterdam, July 19–24 1992.Google Scholar
  84. 82.
    De Jong, MD, Loewenthal M, Boucher CAB, et al. Alternating nevirapine and zidovudine treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type I-infected persons does not prolong nevirapine activity. J Infect Dis 1994; 169: 1346–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 83.
    Saag MS, Emini EA, Laskin OL, et al, and the L-697,661 Working Group. A short-term clinical evanuation of L-797,661, a non-nucleoside inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. N Engl J Med 1993; 329: 1065–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 84.
    Chow YK, Hirsch MS, Merrill DP, et al. Use of evolutionary limitations of HIV-1 multidrug resistance to optimize therapy. Nature 1993; 361: 650–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 85.
    Chow YK, Hirsch MS, Kaplan JC, et al. HIV-1 error revealed (letter). Nature 1993; 364: 679.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 86.
    Larder BA, Darby G, Richman DD. HIV with reduced sensitivity to zidovudine isolated during prolonged therapy. Science 1989; 243: 43641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 87.
    Kellam P, Boucher CAB, Larder BA. Fifth mutation in human immunodeficiency virus type I reverse transcriptase contributes to the development of high-level resistance to zidovudine. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1992; 89: 1934–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 88.
    Larder BA, Kellam P, Kemp SD. Zidovudine resistance predicted by direct detection of mutations in DNA from HIV-infected lymphocytes. AIDS 1991; 5: 137–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 88a.
    Hooker, DJ, Tachedjian G, Solomon AE, et al. An in vivo Mutation from Leucine to Tryptophan at Position 210 in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Reverse Transcriptase Contributes to High-Level Resistance to 3’ -Azido-3’-Deoxythymidine (AZT). Submitted for publication, 1994.Google Scholar
  92. 89.
    Richman DD, Grimes JM, Lagakos SW. Effect of stage of diseaser and drug dose on zidovudine susceptibilities of isolates of human immunodeficiency virus. J AIDS 1990; 3: 743–6.Google Scholar
  93. 90.
    Boucher CAB, Tersmette M, Lange JMA, et al. Zidovudine sensitivity of human immunodeficiency virus from high-risk, symtpom-free individuals during therapy. Lancet 1990; 336: 585–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 91.
    Boucher CAB, O’Sullivan E, Mulder JW, et al. Ordered appearance of zidovudine resistance mutations during treatment of 18 human immunodeficiency virus-positive subjects. J Infect Dis 1992; 165: 105–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 92.
    Tersmette M, Lange JMA, de Goede REY. Association between biological properties of human immunodeficiency virus variants and risk for AIDS and AIDS mortality. Lancet 1989; i:983–5.Google Scholar
  96. 93.
    Boucher CAB, Lange JMA, Miedema FF, et al. HIV-1 biological phenotype and the development of zidovudine resistance in relation to disease progression in asymptomatic individuals during treatment. AIDS 1992; 6: 1259–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 94.
    Tudor-Williams G, St Clair MH, McKinney RE, et al. HIV-1 sensitivity to zidovudine and clinical outcome in children. Lancet 1992; 339: 15–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 95.
    Montaner JSG, Singer J, Schechter MT, et al. Clinical correlates of in-vitro HIV-1 resistance to zidovudine. Results of the Multicentre Canadian AZT Trial. AIDS 1993; 7: 189–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 96.
    Shafer RW, Kozal MJ, Winters MA, et al. Combination therapy with zidovudine and didanosine selects for drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strains with unique patterns of pol mutations. J Infect Dis 1994; 169: 722–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 97.
    Richman DD, Meng TC, Spector SA, et al. Resistance to AZT and ddC during long-term combination therapy in patients with advanced infection with human immunodeficiency virus. J AIDS 1994; 7:135–8.Google Scholar
  101. 98.
    Larder BA. 3’-Azido-3’-deoxythymidine resistance suppressed by a mutation conferring human immunodeficiency virus type 1 resistance to nonucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1992; 36:2664–9.Google Scholar
  102. 99.
    St Clair MH, Martin JL, Tudor WG, et al. Resistance to ddI and sensitivity to AZT induced by a mutation in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Science 1991; 253: 1557–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 100.
    Boucher CAB, Camack N, Schipper P, et al. High-level resistance to (-) enantiomeric 2’-deoxy-3’thiacytidine in vitro is due to one amino acid substitution in the catalytic site of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase. Antomicrob Agents Chemother 1993; 37: 2231–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 101.
    Mofenson L. Epidemiology and determinants of vertical HIV transmission. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 1994; 5252–65.Google Scholar
  105. 102.
    De Rossi A, Ometto L, Mammano F. Time course of antigenaemia and seroconversion in infants with vertically acquired HIV-1 infection. AIDS 1993; 7: 1528–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 103.
    Goedert JJ, Duliege AM, Amos CI, et al. High risk of HIV-1 infection for first-born twins: the International Registry of HIV-exposed Twins. Lancet 1991; 338: 1471–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 104.
    Report of a consensus workshop, Siena. Italy. January 17–18. 1992: early diagnosis of HIV infection in infants. J AIDS 1992; 5: 1169–78.Google Scholar
  108. 105.
    Sperling RS, Stratton P, O’Sullivan MJ, et al. A survey of zidovudine use in pregnant women with human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med 1992; 326: 857–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 106.
    Ferrazin A, De Maria A, Gotta C, et al. Zidovudine therapy of HIV-1 infection during pregnancy: assessment of the effect on newborns. J AIDS 1993; 6: 376–9.Google Scholar
  110. 107.
    Kumar RM, Highes PF, Khurranna A. Zidovudine use in pregnancy: a report on 104 cases and the occurrence of birth defects. J AIDS 1994; 7: 1034–9.Google Scholar
  111. 108.
    Connor EM, Sperling RS, Gelber R, et al. Reduction of maternal-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type i with zidovudine treatment. N Engl J Med 1994; 331: 1 173–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 109.
    Anonymous (editorial). Zidovudine for mother, fetus, and child: hope or poison? Lancet 1994; 344: 207–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 110.
    Rogers MF, Jaffe HW. Reducing the risk of maternal-infant transmission of HIV: a door is opened. N Eng J Med 1994; 331: 1222–1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 111.
    Bayer R. Ethical challenges posed by zidovudine treatment to reduce vertical transmission of HIV. N Engl J Med 1994; 331: 1223–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 112.
    Wei X, Ghosh SK, Taylor ME, et al. Viral dynamics in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Nature 1995; 373: 117–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 113.
    Ho DD, Neumann AU, Perelson AS. et al. Rapid turnover of plasma virions and CD4 lymphocytes in HIV-1 infection. Nature 1995; 373: 123–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 114.
    Wein-Hobson S. Virological mayhem. Nature 1995; 373: 102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sven A. Danner

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations