Angiogenesis pp 333-358 | Cite as

Some Problems of Trial Design for Anti-Angiogenic Agents in Cancer Therapy

  • Frank Arnold
  • H. Brem
  • G. Tamavokopulis
  • D. Tsakayannis
  • I. Gresser
  • A. Budson
  • J. Folkman
  • Tzafra Cohen
  • Hela Gitay-Goren
  • Gera Neufeld
  • Ben Zion Levi
  • George Cherry
  • Anne Eichman
  • Christophe Marcelle
  • Christiane Bréant
  • Nicole M. LeDouarin
  • Nam D. Tran
  • Vicky L. Y. Wong
  • James Bready
  • Judith Berliner
  • Mark Fisher
  • O. Hadjiconti
  • S. Papaioannou
  • G. C. Haralabopoulos
  • I. Demopoulos
  • M. E. Maragoudakis
  • George C. Haralabopoulos
  • Nikos E. Tsopanoglou
  • Eva Pipili-Synetos
  • E. Keshet
  • D. Shweiki
  • E. Bacharach
  • A. Itin
  • S. Banai
  • M. A. Konerding
  • C. van Ackern
  • B. Klapthor
  • F. Steinberg
  • M. Lehmann
  • P. Koolwijk
  • W. J. A. de Vree
  • C. Zurcher
  • V. W. M. van Hinsbergh
  • Jerzy Krupinski
  • Jozef Kaluza
  • E. Missirli
  • M. Bastaki
  • G. Karakiulakis
  • D. E. Morales
  • D. S. Grant
  • S. Maheshwari
  • D. Bhartiya
  • M. C. Cid
  • H. K. Kleinman
  • W. H. Schnaper
  • E. Papadimitriou
  • B. R. Unsworth
  • P. I. Lelkes
  • P. Rooney
  • I. Smith
  • S. Kumar
  • Cliff Stevens
  • Suzanne Harley
  • Rajdip Marok
  • Tulin Sahinoglu
  • Stewart Abbot
  • David Blake
  • Maureen Dougher-Vermazen
  • Denis Gospodarowicz
  • Bruce I. Terman
Chapter
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 263)

Abstract

The propensity of tumours to generate resistant clones is a major barrier to cytotoxic and hormone therapy. The vasculature of malignancies is a more appealing target, since tumour endothelial cells are not known to be tranformed or subject to somatic mutation or random phenotypic variation. Thus an effective anti-angiogenic therapy need not be vitiated by the acquisition of resistance. Although several antiangiogenic agents have been described and used in experimental models, there remain severe problems about optimising their use and about setting up informative clinical trials. These difficulties arise predominantly because of the “invisible” nature of tumour angiogenesis.

Keywords

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cell Vascular Endothelial Cell Growth Factor TITANOCENE Dichloride SPARC Expression 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frank Arnold
    • 1
    • 6
  • H. Brem
    • 2
  • G. Tamavokopulis
    • 2
  • D. Tsakayannis
    • 2
  • I. Gresser
    • 3
  • A. Budson
    • 2
  • J. Folkman
    • 2
  • Tzafra Cohen
    • 4
  • Hela Gitay-Goren
    • 5
  • Gera Neufeld
    • 5
  • Ben Zion Levi
    • 4
  • George Cherry
    • 6
  • Anne Eichman
    • 7
  • Christophe Marcelle
    • 7
  • Christiane Bréant
    • 7
  • Nicole M. LeDouarin
    • 7
  • Nam D. Tran
    • 8
  • Vicky L. Y. Wong
    • 8
  • James Bready
    • 9
  • Judith Berliner
    • 10
  • Mark Fisher
    • 8
  • O. Hadjiconti
    • 11
  • S. Papaioannou
    • 12
  • G. C. Haralabopoulos
    • 11
  • I. Demopoulos
    • 13
  • M. E. Maragoudakis
    • 11
    • 14
    • 20
    • 24
  • George C. Haralabopoulos
    • 14
  • Nikos E. Tsopanoglou
    • 14
  • Eva Pipili-Synetos
    • 14
  • E. Keshet
    • 15
  • D. Shweiki
    • 15
  • E. Bacharach
    • 15
  • A. Itin
    • 15
  • S. Banai
    • 15
  • M. A. Konerding
    • 16
  • C. van Ackern
    • 16
  • B. Klapthor
    • 16
  • F. Steinberg
    • 17
  • M. Lehmann
    • 17
  • P. Koolwijk
    • 18
  • W. J. A. de Vree
    • 18
  • C. Zurcher
    • 18
  • V. W. M. van Hinsbergh
    • 18
  • Jerzy Krupinski
    • 19
  • Jozef Kaluza
    • 19
  • E. Missirli
    • 20
  • M. Bastaki
    • 20
  • G. Karakiulakis
    • 21
  • D. E. Morales
    • 22
  • D. S. Grant
    • 22
  • S. Maheshwari
    • 22
  • D. Bhartiya
    • 22
  • M. C. Cid
    • 22
  • H. K. Kleinman
    • 22
  • W. H. Schnaper
    • 22
  • E. Papadimitriou
    • 23
    • 24
  • B. R. Unsworth
    • 23
  • P. I. Lelkes
    • 25
  • P. Rooney
    • 26
  • I. Smith
    • 26
  • S. Kumar
    • 26
  • Cliff Stevens
    • 27
  • Suzanne Harley
    • 27
  • Rajdip Marok
    • 27
  • Tulin Sahinoglu
    • 27
  • Stewart Abbot
    • 27
  • David Blake
    • 27
  • Maureen Dougher-Vermazen
    • 28
  • Denis Gospodarowicz
    • 29
  • Bruce I. Terman
    • 28
  1. 1.Dept. of DermatologyChurchill Hospital HeadingtonOxfordUK
  2. 2.The Ohio State University Hospital, Dept. of SurgeryChildren’s Hospital and Harvard Med. SchoolColumbusUSA
  3. 3.l’ Institut de Recherches Scientififiques sur le CancerGroupe de LaboratoriesVillejuifFrance
  4. 4.Department of Food Engineering and BiotechnologyIsrael Institute of TechnologyHaifaIsrael
  5. 5.Department of Biology TechnionIsrael Institute of TechnologyHaifaIsrael
  6. 6.Department of DermatologyChurchill HospitalOxfordUK
  7. 7.Institut d’ Embryologie du Centre National de la Recherche ScientifiqueCollège de FranceNogent-sur-Marne, CedexFrance
  8. 8.University of Southern California School of MedicineLos AngelesUSA
  9. 9.Amgen CorporationUSA
  10. 10.University of California at Los Angeles School of MedicineLos AngelesUSA
  11. 11.Department of Pharmacology, School of MedicineUniversity of PatrasPatrasGreece
  12. 12.Department of Molecular Pharmacology, School of PharmacyUniversity of PatrasPatrasGreece
  13. 13.Department of Radiology, School of MedicineUniversity of PatrasPatrasGreece
  14. 14.Department of PharmacologyUniversity of Patras, Medical SchoolRio PatrasGreece
  15. 15.Dept. of Molecular BiologyHebrew University-Hadassah Medical SchoolJerusalemIsrael
  16. 16.Institüt für AnatomieUniversitätsklinikum EssenEssen 1Germany
  17. 17.Institut für Med. StrahlenbiologieUniversitätsklinikum EssenEssen 1Germany
  18. 18.Gaubius LaboratoryIVVO-TNOLeidenThe Netherlands
  19. 19.Department of Neuropathology Institute of NeurologyUniversity of Cracow Medical SchoolPoland
  20. 20.Dept. Pharmacol.Univ. of Patras Med. Schl.PatrasGreece
  21. 21.Dept Pharmacol.Schl. Pharm. Aristotle Univ.ThessalonikiGreece
  22. 22.Laboratory of Developmental Biology Developmental Endocrinology BranchNICMD. NIHBethesdaUSA
  23. 23.Dept of BiologyMarquette UniversityMilwaukeeUSA
  24. 24.Dept of PharmacologyUniversity of PatrasPatrasGreece
  25. 25.Milwaukee Clinical CampusUniversity of WI Medical SchoolMilwaukeeUSA
  26. 26.Department of Pathological SciencesUniversity of Machester and Christie HospitalManchesterEngland
  27. 27.The Bone & Joint Research UnitThe London Hospital Medical CollegeLondon ElUK
  28. 28.Lederle LabsMedical Research DivisionPearl RiverUSA
  29. 29.Cancer Research Institute, School of MedicineUniv. of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA

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