Factors Limiting Success of Introduced Natural Enemies

  • Robert van den Bosch
  • P. S. Messenger
  • A. P. Gutierrez


Since the initial success against the cottony-cushion scale in California, by 1976 approximately 128 species of pest insects and weeds in many parts of the world have been completely or substantially controlled by imported natural enemies (Laing and Hamai, 1976). Despite this gratifying record, most attempts in classical biological control either have met with total failure, or have been only partially successful (Turnbull and Chant, 1961; Turnbull, 1967; Hall and Ehler, 1979). But this is not reason for despair, as the few limited successes have been of immense value, saving countless millions of dollars for growers and consumers, and have helped reduce pesticide use in agriculture. This record of course needs improvement, and only careful agroecosystem analysis of the factors limiting natural-enemy effectiveness will help show us the way.


Biological Control Natural Enemy Juglans Regia Classical Biological Control Palearctic Region 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert van den Bosch
    • 1
  • P. S. Messenger
    • 1
  • A. P. Gutierrez
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Biological ControlUniversity of California, BerkeleyAlbanyUSA

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