The Ecological Basis for Biological Control

  • Robert van den Bosch
  • P. S. Messenger
  • A. P. Gutierrez


Biological control is a natural phenomenon that, when applied successfully to a pest problem, can provide a relatively permanent, harmonious, and economical solution. But because biological control is a manifestation of the natural association of different kinds of living organisms, i.e., parasites and pathogens with their hosts and predators with their prey, the phenomenon is a dynamic one, subject to disturbances by other factors, to changes in the environment, and to the adaptations, properties, and limitations of the organisms involved in each case (Huffaker and Messenger, 1964).


Biological Control Natural Enemy Mortality Factor Natural Control Biological Control Program 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert van den Bosch
    • 1
  • P. S. Messenger
    • 1
  • A. P. Gutierrez
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Biological ControlUniversity of California, BerkeleyAlbanyUSA

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