Human Brain Electrophysiology and Alcoholism

  • Bernice Porjesz
  • Henri Begleiter


Chronic alcoholism is characteristically associated with a broad spectrum of brain disturbances ranging from the severe symptoms of the Wernicke—Korsakoff syndrome1,2 to the more subtle, but nonetheless significant, cognitive disturbances characteristic of the majority of alcoholic patients. In some alcoholics the brain damage is so severe that it renders the soba00010300082individual ineffective as a meaningful member of society. Less clinically apparent forms of brain damage in alcoholics have been suspected for decades but ignored, because sensitive techniques required for their detection in vivo were unavailable. Significantly, brain dysfunction of a subclinical severity may impair the ability of affected individuals to either reduce their intake or abstain from alcohol. Moreover, by impairing social functioning, it may also account for such phenomena as “loss of control” over drinking when it occurs.


Chronic Alcoholic Alcohol Withdrawal Brain Dysfunction Nontarget Stimulus Drinking History 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Victor M, Adams RD, Collins GH: The Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome. Philadelphia, FA Davis and Co, 1971Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Butters N, Cermak LS: Alcoholic Korsakoff s Syndrome: An Information-Processing Approach to Amnesia. New York, Academic Press, 1980Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Siggins GR, Bloom FE: Alcohol-related electrophysiology. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 13: 203–211, 1980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Altshuler HL, Harlan B, Burch NR, et al: Changes in the Rhesus monkey’s EEG responses to ethanol during chronic exposure. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 13: 223–240, 1980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Begleiter H, DeNoble V, Porjesz B: Protracted brain dysfunction after alcohol withdrawal in monkeys, in Begleiter H (ed): Biological Effects of Alcohol. New York, Plenum Press, 1980, pp 231–250Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sorenson S, Palmer M, Dunwiddie T, et al: Electrophysiological correlates of ethanol-induced sedation in differentially sensitive lines of mice. Science 210: 1143–1144, 1980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Walker DW, Hunter BE, Abraham WC: Neuroanatomical and functional deficits subsequent to chronic ethanol administration in animals. Alcoholism: Clin Exp Res 5: 267–282, 1981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hetzler B, Heilbronner RL, Griffin J, et al: Acute effects of alcohol on evoked potentials in visual cortex and superior colliculus of the rat. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 51: 69–79, 1981PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ron MA, Acker W, Lishman WA: Dementia in chronic alcoholism: A clinical, psychological and computerized axial tomographic study. Presented at The Second World Congress of Biological Psychiatry, Barcelona, Spain, 1978Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cala LA, Jones B, Wiley B, et al: A computerized axial tomography (C.A.T.) study of alcohol induced cerebral atrophy—In conjunction with other correlates. Acta Psychiatr Scand 62 (Suppl 286): 31–40, 1980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bergman H, Borg S, Hindmarsh T, et al: Computed tomography of the brain and neuropsychological assessment of male alcoholic patients and a random sample from the general male population. Acta Psychiatr Scand 62 (Suppl 286): 47–56, 1980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wilkinson DA, Carlen PI: Relation of neuropsychological test performance in alcoholics to brain morphology measured by computed tomography, in Begleiter H (ed): Biological Effects of Alcohol. New York, Plenum Press, 1980, pp 683–700Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Begleiter H, Porjesz B, Tenner M: Neuroradiological and neurophysiological evidence of brain deficits in chronic alcoholics. Acta Psychiatr Scand 62 (Suppl 286): 3–13, 1980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cala LA, Mastaglia FL: Computerized tomography in chronic alcoholics. Alcoholism: Clin Exp Res 5: 283–294, 1981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Porjesz B, Begleiter H: Brain dysfunction and alcohol, in Kissin B, Begleiter H (eds): The Pathogenesis of Alcoholism: Biological Factors. New York, Plenum Press, 1983, pp 415–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lusins J, Zinkey S, Smokier H, et al: Alcoholism and cerebral atrophy: A study of 50 patients with CT-Scan and psychologie testing. Alcoholism: Clin Exp Res 4: 406–411, 1980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Begleiter H, Porjesz B: Persistence of a “subacute withdrawal syndrome” following chronic ethanol intake. Drug Alcohol Depend 4: 353–357, 1979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zilm D, Kaplan HL, Capell H: Electroencephalographic tolerance and abstinence phenomena during repeated alcohol ingestion by nonalcoholics. Science 212: 1175–1177, 1981PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bierley RA, Cannon DS, Wehl CK, et al: Effects of alcohol on visually evoked responses in rats during addiction and withdrawal. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 12: 909–915, 1980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Squires KC, Chu NS, Starr A: Auditory brain stem potentials with alcohol. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 45: 577–584, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Squires KC, Chu NS, Starr A: Acute effects of alcohol on auditory brainstem potentials in humans. Science 201: 174–176, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chu NS, Squires KC, Starr A: Auditory brain stem potentials in chronic alcohol intoxication and alcohol withdrawal. Arch Neurol 35: 596, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Begleiter H, Porjesz B: Persistence of brain hyperexcitability following chronic alcohol exposure in rats. Adv Exp Med Biol 85B: 209–222, 1977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Porjesz B, Begleiter H, Hurowitz S: Brain excitability subsequent to alcohol withdrawal in rats, in Ford DH, Clouet DH (eds): Tissue Responses to Addictive Substances. New York, Spectrum, 1976, pp 461–469Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Begleiter H, Platz A: The effects of alcohol on the central nervous system in humans, in Kissin B, Begleiter H (eds): The Biology of Alcoholism, Vol 2. New York, Plenum Press, 1972, pp 293–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sohmer H, Feinmesser M: Cochlear action potentials recorded from external ear in man. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 76: 427–435, 1967PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jewett DL: Volume conducted potentials in response to auditory stimuli as detected by averaging in the cat. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 28: 609–618, 1970PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jewett DL, Williston JS: Auditory evoked far fields averaged from the scalp of humans. Brain 94: 681–696, 1971PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lev A, Sohmer H: Sources of averaged neural responses recorded in animal and human subjects during cochlear audiometry (electrocochleogram). Arch Klin Exp Ohren Nasen Kehlkopfheildk 201: 79, 1972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Buchwald JS, Huang CM: Far field acoustic response: Origins in the cat. Science 189: 382–384, 1975PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Starr A, Achor LJ: Auditory brainstem response in neurological disease. Arch Neurol 32: 161–168, 1975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Starr A, Hamilton AE: Correlation between confirmed sites of neurological lesions and far-field auditory brainstem responses. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 41: 595–608, 1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Stockard JJ, Rossiter US: Clinical and pathological correlates of brainstem auditory response abnormalities. Neurology 27: 316–325, 1977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Fabiani M, Sohmer H, Tait C, et al: A functional measure of brain activity: Brain stem transmission time. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 47: 483–492, 1979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Church MW, Williams HL: Dose-and time-dependent effects of ethanol on brain stem auditory evoked responses in young adult males. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 54: 161–174, 1982PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Fukui Y, Mori M, Kohga M, et al: Reassessment of CNS effects of acute ethanol administration with auditory evoked response: A comparative study of brain stem auditory evoked response, middle latency response and slow vertex response. Jpn J Alcohol Drug Depend 16: 9–32, 1981Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Schom J, Lennon V, Bickford RG: Temperature effects on the brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAERs) of the rat. Proc San Diego Biomed Symp 16: 313, 1977Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Stockard JJ, Sharbrough FW, Tinker JA: Effects of hypothermia on the human brainstem auditory response. Ann Neurol 3 /4: 368–370, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Stockard JJ, Stockard JE, Sharbrough FW: Non-pathologic factors influencing brainstem auditory evoked potentials. Am J EEG Technol 18: 177–209, 1978Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Marshall NK, Donchin E: Circadian variation in the latency of brainstem responses: Its relation to body temperature. Science 212: 356–358, 1981PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Jones TA, Stockard JJ, Weidner WI: The effects of temperature and acute alcohol intoxication on brain stem auditory evoked potentials in the cat. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 49: 23–30, 1980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gross MM, Begleiter H, Tobin M, et al: Changes in auditory evoked response induced by alcohol. J Nery Ment Dis 143: 152–156, 1966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    McRandle C, Goldstein R: Effect of alcohol on the early and late components of the averaged electroencephalic response to clicks. J Speech Hearing Res 16: 353–359, 1973PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Flach M, Krause K, Hofmann G: The alcohol effect on the latency time of acoustically evoked potentials. Laryngol Rhino 56: 863–867, 1977Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Wolpaw JR, Penry JK: Effects of ethanol, caffeine and placebo on the auditory evoked response. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 44: 568–574, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Pfefferbaum A, Roth WT, Tinklenberg JR, et al: The effects of ethanol and meperidine on auditory evoked potentials. Drug Alcohol Depend 4: 371–380, 1979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Pfefferbaum A, Horvath TB, Roth WT, et al: Acute and chronic effects of ethanol on event-related potentials, in Begleiter H (ed): Biological Effects of Alcohol. New York, Plenum Press, 1980, pp 625–640Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Neville Hi, Snyder E, Bloom FE: Effects of acute ethanol ingestion on event-related cerebral potentials in humans. Presented at 12th Annual NCA/AMSA/RSA Conference, New Orleans, 1981Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Elmasian R, Neville H, Woods D, et al: Event-related potentials are different in individuals at high and low risk for developing alcoholism. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79: 7900–7903, 1982Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lewis EG, Dustman RC, Beck EC: The effects of alcohol on visual and somatosensory evoked responses. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 28: 201–205, 1970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Salamy A: The effects of alcohol on the variability of the human evoked potential. Neuro-pharmacology 12: 1103–1107, 1973Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Salamy A, Williams HL: The effects of alcohol on sensory evoked and spontaneous cerebral potentials in man. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 35: 3–11, 1973PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Porjesz, Begleiter H: The effects of alcohol on the somatosensory evoked potentials in man. Adv Exp Med Biol 35: 345–350, 1973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Lewis EG, Dustman RE, Beck EC: The effect of alcohol on sensory phenomena and cognitive motor tasks. Q J Stud Alcohol 30: 618–633, 1969PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Spilker B, Callaway E: Effects of drugs on “augmenting/reducing” in averaged visual evoked response in man. Psychopharmacologia 15:116–124, 1969Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Porjesz B, Begleiter H: Alcohol and bilateral evoked brain potentials. Adv Exp Med Bio 59: 553–567, 1975Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Rhodes LE, Obitz FW, Creel D: Effect of alcohol and task on hemispheric asymmetry of visually evoked potentials on man. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurphysiol 38: 561–568, 1975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    von Taghavy A, Penning J, Hoh E: Gleichzeitige ableitung visuell evozierter potentiale (VEP) and registrierung einfacher visueller reaktionszeiten (RZ) in “maximalbereich” der athanolwirkung. Arzneimittelforsch 26: 1125, 1976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Erwin CW, Linnoila M: Effect of ethyl alcohol on visual evoked potentials. Alcoholism: Clin Exp Res 5: 49–55, 1981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Simpson D, Erwin CA, Linnoila M: Ethanol and menstrual cycle interactions in the visual evoked response. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 52: 28–35, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hyvarinen J, Laakso M, Roine R, et al: Effects of ethanol on neuronal activity in the parietal association cortex of alert monkeys. Brain 101:701–715, 1978Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Wallgren H, Barry H: Actions of Alcohol, Vol 1. Amsterdam, Elsevier, 1970Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Himwich HE, Callison DA: The effect of alcohol on evoked potentials of various parts of the central nervous system of the cat, in Kissin B, Begleiter H (eds): The Biology of Alcoholism, Vol 2. New York, Plenum Press, 1972, pp 67–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kalant H: Direct effects of ethanol on the nervous system. Fed Proc 34: 1930–1941, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    DiPerri R, Dravid A, Schweigerdt A, et al: Effects of alcohol on evoked potentials of various parts of the central nervous system of cat. Q J Alcohol Stud 29: 20–37, 1968Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Nakai Y, Takeda Y, Takaori S: Effects of ethanol on afferent transmission in the central visual pathway of cats. Eur J Pharmacol 21: 318–322, 1973PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Perrin RG, Hockman CH, Kalant H, et al: Acute effects of ethanol on spontaneous and auditory evoked electrical activity in cat brain. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 36: 19–31, 1974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Klemm WR, Mallari CG, Dreyfus LR, et al: Ethanol-induced regional and dose-response differences in multiple-unit activity in rabbits. Psychopharmacology 49: 235–244, 1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Harmony T, Ricardo J, Otero G, et al: Symmetry of the visual evoked potential in normal subjects. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 35: 232, 1973Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Carmon A, Harishanu Y, Lowinger E, et al: Asymmetries in hemispheric blood volume and cerebral dominance. Behav Biol 7: 853–859, 1972PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Dabbs JM Jr: Left-right differences in cerebral blood flow and cognition. Psychophysiology 17: 548–551, 1980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Berglund M, Bliding G, Bliding A, et al: Reversibility of cerebral dysfunction in alcoholism during the first seven weeks of abstinence—A regional cerebral blood flow study. Acta Psychiatr Scand 62 (Suppl286): l19–128, 1980Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Berglund M: Cerebral blood flow in chronic alcoholics. Alcoholism: Clin Exp Res 5: 295–303, 1981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Propping P: Genetic aspects of alcohol action on the electroencephalogram (EEG), in Begleiter H (ed): Biological Effects of Alcohol. New York, Plenum Press, 1980, pp 589–602Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Obitz FW, Rhodes LE, Creel D: Effect of alcohol and monetary reward on visual evoked potentials and reaction time. J Stud Alcohol 11:2057–2064, 1977Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kopell BS, Roth WT, Tinklenberg JR: Time-course effects of marijuana and ethanol on event-related potentials. Psychopharmacology (Berlin) 56: 15–20, 1978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Roth WT, Tinklenberg JR, Kopell BS: Ethanol and marijuana effects on event-related potentials in a memory retrieval paradigm. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 42: 381–388, 1977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Sutton S, Tueting P, Zubin J, et al: Information delivery and the sensory evoked potential. Science 155: 1436–1439, 1967PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Donchin E, Ritter W, McCallum WC: Cognitive psychophysiology: The endogenous components of the ERP, in Callaway E, Tueting P, Koslow SH (eds): Event-Related Brain Potentials in Man. New York, Academic Press, 1978, pp 349–411Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Tueting P, Sutton S, Zubin 1: Quantitative evoked potential correlates of the probability of events. Psychophysiology 7: 385–394, 1971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Begleiter H, Porjesz B, Chou CL, et al: P3 and stimulus incentive value. Psychophysiology 20: 95–101, 1983PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Simson R, Vaughan HG Jr, Ritter W: The scalp topography of potentials associated with missing visual or auditory stimuli. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 40: 33–42, 1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Simson R, Vaughan HG Jr, Ritter W: The scalp topography of potentials in auditory and visual discrimination tasks. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 42: 528–535, 1977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Simson R, Vaughan HG Jr, Ritter W: The scalp topography of potentials in auditory and visual go/no go tasks. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 43: 864–875, 1977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Campbell K, Marangoni C, Walsh C, et al: The effects of alcohol on the human auditory evoked potential and signal detection. Presented at Society for Psychophysiological Research, Vancouver, October 1980Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Porjesz B, Begleiter H: Human evoked brain potentials and alcohol. Alcoholism: Clin Exp Res 5: 304–317, 1981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Begleiter H, Gross MM, Porjesz B: Recovery function and clinical symptomology in acute alcoholization and withdrawal, in Gross MM (ed): Alcohol Intoxication and Withdrawal: Experimental Studies. New York, Plenum Press, 1973, pp 407–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Begleiter H, Porjesz B, Yerre-Grubstein C: Excitability cycle of somatosensory evoked potentials during experimental alcoholization and withdrawal. Psychopharmacologia 37: 15–21, 1974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Wagman AMI, Allen RP, Funderburk F, et al: EEG measures of functional tolerance to alcohol. Biol Psychiatry 13: 719–728, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Hunter BE, Walker DW: The neural basis of ethanol dependence, in Begleiter H (ed): Biological Effects of Alcohol. New York, Plenum Press, 1980, pp 251–270Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Walker DW, Zometzer SF: Alcohol withdrawal in mice: Electroencephalographic and behavioral correlates. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 36: 233–243, 1974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Begleiter H, Coltrera M: Evoked potential changes during ethanol withdrawal in rats. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 2: 263–268, 1975PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Coger RW, Dymond AM, Serafetinides EA, et al: Alcoholism: Averaged visual evoked response amplitude-intensity slope and symmetry in withdrawal. Biol Psychiatry 11: 435–443, 1976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Lelord G, Aron E, Bidron HP, et al: Sensory conditioning of evoked potentials in chronic alcoholics, in Begleiter H (ed): Biological Effects of Alcohol. New York, Plenum Press, 1980, pp 641–648Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Porjesz B, Begleiter H: Visual evoked potentials and brain dysfunction in chronic alcoholics, in Begleiter H (ed): Evoked Brain Potentials and Behavior. New York, Plenum Press, 1979, pp 277–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Peeke SC, Prael AR, Herning RI, et al: Effect of disulfiram on cognition, subjective response, and cortical-event-related alcohol in nonalcoholic subjects. Alcoholism: Clin Exp Res 3: 223–229, 1979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Petrie A: Pain sensitivity, sensory deprivation and susceptibility to satiation. Science 128: 1431–1433, 1958PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Petrie A: Individuality in Pain and Suffering. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1967Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Buchsbaum M, Pfefferbaum A: Individual differences in stimulus intensity response. Psychophysiology 8: 600–611, 1971PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Buchsbaum M, Silverman J: Stimulus intensity control on the cortical evoked response. Psychosom Med 30: 12–22, 1968PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Buchsbaum MS, Ludwig AM: Effects of sensory input and alcohol administration on visual evoked potentials in normal subjects and alcoholics, in Begleiter H (ed): Biological Effects of Alcohol. New York, Plenum Press, 1980, pp 561–572Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Kissin B: The pharmacodynamics and natural history of alcoholism, in Kissin B, Begleiter H (eds): The Biology of Alcoholism, Vol 3. New York, Plenum Press, 1974, pp 1–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Reed TE: Physiological and behavioral normalizing actions of a single alcohol dose in mice, in Gross MM (ed): Alcohol Intoxication and Withdrawal, Vol ILIA. New York, Plenum Press, 1977, pp 293–304Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    von Knorring L: Visual averaged evoked responses in patients suffering from alcoholism. Neuropsychobiology 2: 233–238, 1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Ludwig AM, Cain RB, Wikler A: Stimulus intensity modulation and alcohol consumption. J Stud Alcohol 38: 2049–2056, 1977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Martin DC, Becker J, Buffington V: An evoked potential study of endogenous affective disorders, in Begleiter H (ed): Evoked Brain Potentials and Behavior. New York, Plenum Press, 1979, pp 401–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Begleiter H, Porjesz B, Chou CL: Auditory brainstem potentials in chronic alcoholics. Science 211: 1064–1066, 1981PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Begleiter H, Porjesz B, Tenner M: Event-related brain potentials and computerized tomography in chronic alcoholics. Wien Z Suchtforschung 2: 3–6, 1981Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Porjesz B, Begleiter H, Garozzo R: Visual evoked potential correlates of information processing deficits in chronic alcoholics, in Begleiter H (ed): Biological Effects of Alcohol. New York, Plenum Press, 1980, pp 603–623Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Porjesz B, Begleiter H, Samuelly I: Cognitive deficits in chronic alcoholics and elderly subjects assessed by evoked brain potentials. Acta Psychiatr Scand 62 (Suppl 286): 15–29, 1980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Porjesz B, Begleiter H: Event related potentials in chronic alcoholics. Presented at 134th Annual American Psychiatric Association, New Orleans, 1981Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Porjesz B, Begleiter H: Event related potentials and decision time in chronic alcoholics. Presented at International Council on Alcohol Abuse, Vienna, June, 1981Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Porjesz B, Begleiter H: Evoked brain potential differentiation between geriatric subjects and chronic alcoholics with brain dysfunction, in Courjon J, Mauguiere F, Revol M (eds): Clinical Applications of Evoked Potentials in Neurology. New York, Raven Press, 1982, pp 117–124Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Schenkenberg T, Dustman RE, Beck EC: Cortical evoked responses of hospitalized geriatrics in three diagnostic categories. Proceedings of the 80th Annual Convention, American Psychological Association, 1972, pp 671–672Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Cannon WG: Cortical evoked responses of young normal, young alcoholic and elderly normal individuals. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Utah, 1974Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Dustman RE, Snyder WW, Calner DA, et al: The evoked response as a measure of cerebral dysfunction, in Begleiter H (ed): Evoked Brain Potentials and Behavior, Vol 2. New York, Plenum Press, 1979, pp 321–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Adams RD, Victor M, Mancall E: Central Pontine Myelinolysis: A hitherto undescribed disease occurring in alcoholic and malnourished patients. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 81.136, 1959Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Moscatelli EA, Demediuk P: Effects of chronic consumption of ethanol and low-thiamin, low protein diets on the lipid composition of rat whole brain and brain membranes. Biochem Biophys Acta 596: 331–337, 1980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Rosenhamer HJ, Silfverskiold BI: Slow tremor and delayed brainstem auditory evoked responses in alcoholics. Arch Neurol 37: 293–296, 1980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Chu NS, Squires KC: Auditory brain stem response study in alcoholic patients. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 13: 241–244, 1980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Chu NS, Squires KC, Starr A: Auditory brainstem responses in chronic alcoholic patients. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 54: 418–425, 1982PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Hillman RW: Alcoholism and malnutrition, in Kissin B, Begleiter H (eds): The Biology of Alcoholism, Vol 3. New York, Plenum Press, 1974, pp 513–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Beck EC, Dustman RE, Blusewicz T, et al: Cerebral evoked potentials and correlated neuropsychological changes in the human brain during aging: A comparison of alcoholism and aging, in Ordy JM, Brizzee KR (eds): Aging: Sensory Systems and Information Processing. New York, Raven Press, 1978, pp 203–226Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Pfefferbaum A, Horvath TB, Roth WT, et al: Event-related potential changes in chronic alcoholics. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 47: 637–647, 1979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Salamy JG, Wright JR, Faillace LA: Changes in average evoked responses during abstention in chronic alcoholics. J Nery Ment Dis 168: 19–25, 1980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Porjesz B, Begleiter H: Event related potentials during bimodal multichannel selective attention, in preparationGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Hillyard SA, Hint RF, Schwent UL, et al: Electrical signs of selective attention in the human brain. Science 182: 177–180, 1973PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Hillyard SA, Picton TW, Regan D: Sensation, perception and attention: Analysis using ERP’s, in Callaway E, Tueting P, Koslow SH (eds): Event Related Brain Potentials in Man. New York, Academic Press, 1978, pp 223–321Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Picton TW, Hillyard SA: Human auditory evoked potentials. II. Effects of attention. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 36: 191–200, 1974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Ritter W, Vaughan HG Jr, Costa LD: Orienting and habituation to auditory stimuli: A study of short-term changes in average evoked response. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 25: 550–556, 1968PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Roth WT: Auditory evoked response to unpredictable stimuli. Psychophysiology 10:125–137, 1973Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Donchin E: Event-related brain potentials: A tool in the study of human information processing, in Begleiter H (ed): Evoked Brain Potentials and Behavior, Vol 2. New York, Plenum Press, 1979, pp 13–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Donchin E: Surprise!… Surprise? Psychophysiology 18: 493–513, 1981PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Vinogradova OS: The limbic system and registration of information, in Hinde R, Korn G (eds): Short-Term Processes in Nervous Activity and Behavior. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Cambridge University Press, 1970Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Wood CG, Allison T, Goff WB, et al: On the neural origin of P300 in man, in Kornhuber HH, Deeke L (eds): Motivation, Motor and Sensory Processes of the Brain: Electrical Potentials, Behavior and Clinical Use. Amsterdam, Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, 1980, pp 51–56Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Halgren E, Squires NK, Wilson CL, et al: Endogenous potentials generated in the human hippocampal formation and amygdala by infrequent events. Science 210: 803–805, 1980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Riley JN, Walker DW: Morphological alterations in hippocampus after long-term alcohol consumption in mice. Science 201: 646–648, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Walker DW, Barnes DE, Zornetzer SF, et al: Neuronal loss in hippocampus induced by prolonged ethanol consumption in rat. Science 209: 711–713, 1980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Renault B, Lesevre N: A trial by trial study of the visual omission response in reaction time situations, in Lehman D, Callaway E (eds): Human Evoked Potentials: Applications and Problems. New York, Plenum Press, 1979, pp 317–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Ritter W, Simson R, Vaughan HG, et al: A brain event related to the making of a sensory discrimination. Science 203: 1358–1361, 1979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Towey J, Rist F, Hakerem G, et al: N250 latency and decision time. Bull Psychonomic Soc 15: 365–368, 1980Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Gaillard AWK, Lawson EA: Mismatch negativity (N2) following the discrimination of consonant vowel stimuli. Psychophysiology 18: 172–173, 1980Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Talland GA: Alcoholism and reaction time. Q J Stud Alcohol 24: 610, 1963PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Vivian TN, Goldstein G, Shelly C: Reaction time and motor speed in chronic alcoholics. Percept Motor Skills 36: 136–138, 1973PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Bertera JH, Parsons OA: Reaction time and S-R compatibility effects in detoxified alcoholics. Alcohol Tech Rep 1: 15–22, 1973Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Naatanen R: The N2 component of the evoked potential: A scalp reflection of neuronal mismatch of orienting theory? in Strelaw J, Farley E, Gale A (eds): Biological Foundations of Personality and Behavior. Washington, D.C., Hemisphere Press, 1981Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Kutas M, McCarthy G, Donchin E: Augmenting mental chronometry: The P300 as a measure of stimulus evaluation. Science 197: 792–795, 1977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Ritter W, Simson R, Vaughan H: Association cortex potentials and reaction time in auditory discrimination. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 33: 547–555, 1972PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Ford JM, Hink RF, Hopkins WF, et al: Age effects on event related potentials in a selective attention task. J Gerontol 34: 388–395, 1979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Johnson R, Donchin E: On how P300 amplitude varies with the utility of the eliciting stimuli. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 44: 424–437, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Ruchkin DS, Sutton S: Equivocation and P300 amplitude, in Multidisciplinary Perspectives in Event-Related Brain Potential Research. Proceedings of the 4th International Congress on Event-Related Slow Potentials of the Brain, Hendersonville NC, December 1978, pp 175–177Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Goodin D, Squires KC, Starr A: Long latency event related components of the auditory evoked potential in dementia. Brain 101: 635–648, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Porjesz B, Begleiter H: Event-related brain potentials to high incentive stimuli in abstinent alcoholics. Paper presented at RSA Conference, Charleston, 1985Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Feuer L, Porjesz B, Begleiter H: Neuropsychological dysfunction in abstinent chronic alcoholics, in preparationGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Goodin DS, Squires KC, Henderson BH, et al: Age-related variations in evoked potentials to auditory stimuli in normal human subjects. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 44: 447–458, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Porjesz B, Begleiter H: Evoked brain deficits in alcohol and aging. Alcoholism: Clin Exp Res 6: 53–63, 1980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Begleiter H, Porjesz B, Bihari B, et al: Event-related brain potentials in children at high risk for alcoholism, Science 225: 1493–1496, 1984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Porjesz B: Neurophysiological brain dysfunction in alcoholics. Paper presented at 14th Annual NCA/AMSA/RSA Conference, Houston, 1983Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Porjesz B, Begleiter H: Reversibility of electrophysiological deficits following prolonged abstinence in chronic alcoholics, in preparationGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Begleiter H, Feuer L, Porjesz B: Electrophysiological brain dysfunction and cognitive deficits in abstinent chronic alcoholics, in preparationGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Goodwin DW: Alcoholism and heredity: A review and hypothesis. Arch Gen Psychiatry 36: 57–61, 1979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Goodwin DW, Schulsinger F, Hermansen L, et al: Alcohol problems in adoptees raised apart from alcoholic biological parents. Arch Gen Psychiatry 28: 238–243, 1973PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Bohman M: Some genetic aspects of alcoholism and criminality: A population of adoptees. Arch Gen Psychiatry 35: 269–276, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Cadoret RJ, Gath A: Inheritance of alcoholism in adoptees. Br J Psychiatry 132: 252–258, 1978Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Cadoret RJ, Cain C, Grove WM: Development of alcoholism in adoptees raised apart from alcoholic biologic relatives. Arch Gen Psychiatry 37: 561–563, 1980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Goodwin DW, Guze SB: Heredity and Alcoholism, in Kissin B, Begleiter H (eds): Biology of Alcoholism, Vol 3. New York, Plenum Press, 1974, pp 37–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Shuckit MA, Goodwin DA, Winokur G: A study of alcoholism in half siblings. Am J Psychiatry 128: 1132–1136, 1972Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Kaij L: Studies on the Etiology and Sequels of Abuse of Alcohol. Lund, Sweden, Department of Psychiatry, University of Lund, 1960Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Partanen J, Brun K, Markkamen T: Inheritance of Drinking Behavior: A Study of Intelligence, Personality, and Use of Alcohol of Adult Twins. Helsinki, Finnish Foundation for Alcohol Studies, 1966Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Jonsson E, Nilsson T: Alkohol Konsumtion hos monorygota och dizygota tuillingpar. Nord Hygiensik Tidsskr 49: 21–25, 1968Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Loehlin JC: Analysis of alcohol-related questionnaire items from the National Merit Twin Study. Ann NY Acad Sci 197: 117–120, 1972PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    McCord W, McCord J, Gudeman J: Origins of Alcoholism. Stanford, California, Stanford University Press, 1960Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Jones H, McFarlane J, Eichorn D: A progress report on growth studies at the University of California. Vita Humana 3: 17–31, 1960PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Goodwin DW, Schulsinger F, Hermansen L, et al: Alcoholism and the hyperactive child syndrome. J Nery Ment Dis 160: 349–353, 1975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Morrison JR, Stewart MAA: A family study of the hyperactive child syndrome. Biol Psychiatry 3: 189–195, 1971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Halliday R, Rosenthal JH, Naylor H, et al: Averaged evoked potential predictors of clinical improvement in hyperactive children treated with methylphenidate: An initial study and a replication. Psychophysiology 13: 429–440, 1976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Zambelli AJ, Stamm JS, Maitinsky S, et al: Auditory evoked potentials in formerly hyperactive adolescents. Am J Psychiatry 134: 742–747, 1977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Loiselle O, Stamm JS, Maitinsky S, et al: Evoked potential and behavioral signs of attentive dysfunctions in hyperactive boys. Psychophysiology 17: 193–201, 1980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Klorman R, Salzman L, Pass H, et al: Effects of methylphenidate on hyperactive children’s evoked responses during passive and active attention. Psychophysiology 16: 23–29, 1979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Dustman RE, Beck EC: The visually evoked potentials in twins. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 19: 541–638, 1965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Bauer-Moffett C, Altman J: Ethanol-induced reductions in cerebellar growth of infant rats. Exp Neural 48: 378–382, 1975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Majdecki T, Beskid M, Skladzinski J, et al: Effect of ethanol application during pregnancy on the electron microscopic image of a newborn brain. Mater Med Pol 4: 1–6, 1976Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Rosman NP, Malone MJ: Reversal of delayed myelinogenesis in the fetal alcohol syndrome. Neurology 27: 369, 1977Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Clarren SK, Alvord EC Jr, Sumi M, et al: Brain malformations related to prenatal exposure to ethanol. J Pediatr 92: 64–67, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Barnes DE, Walker DW: Neuronal loss in hippocampus and cerebellar cortex in rats prenatally exposed to alcohol. Alcoholism: Clin Exp Res 4: 209, 1980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Sherwin DT, Zagorski D, Jacobson S: Effects of prenatal exposure to ethanol on the development of the rat brain: A model of the fetal alcoholic syndrome. Alcoholism: Clin Exp Res 4: 228, 1980Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Church MW, Holloway JA: Postnatal development of brainstem auditory evoked potentials in rat pups prenatally exposed to ethanol: A preliminary report. Alcohol Tech Rep 9: 7–12, 1980Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Rogers DA: Factors underlying differences in alcohol preference of inbred strains of mice, in Kissin B, Begleiter H (eds): The Biology of Alcoholism, Vol 2. New York, Plenum Press, 1972, pp 107–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Altura B, Altura B: Alcohol induces cerebral arterial and arteriolar vasospasm by a direct action. Circulation 64 (Suppl IV): 231, 1981Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Horvath TB: Clinical spectrum and epidemiological features of alcohol dementia, in Rankin JD (ed): Alcohol, Drugs and Brain Damage, Vol 1. Toronto, House of Lind, 1975, pp 1–16Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Gabrielli WF, Mednick SA, Volavka J, et al: Electroencephalograms in children of alcoholic fathers. Psychophysiology 19: 404–407, 1982PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Parsons OA: Brain damage in alcoholics: Altered states of consciousness, in Gross MM (ed): Experimental Studies of Alcohol Intoxication and Withdrawal. New York, Plenum Press, 1975, pp 569–584Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Ryback R: The continuum and specificity of the effects of alcohol on memory: A review. Q J Stud Alcohol 32: 995–1016, 1971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Glosser G, Butters N, Kaplan E: Visuoperceptual processes in brain-damaged patients on the digit-symbol substitution test. Int J Neurosci 153: 292–297, 1977Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Kapur N, Butters N: An analysis of visuoperceptive deficits in alcohol Korsakoffs and longterm alcoholics. Stud Alcohol 38: 2025–2035, 1977Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    Butters N, Cermak LS, Montgomery K, et al: Some comparisons of the memory and visuoperceptive deficits of chronic alcoholics and patients with Korsakoff’s disease. Alcoholism: Clin Exp Res 1: 73–80, 1977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Tarter RE: Psychological deficit in chronic alcoholics: A review. Int J Addict 10 (2): 327–368, 1975Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernice Porjesz
    • 1
  • Henri Begleiter
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryState University of New York, Downstate Medical CenterBrooklynUSA

Personalised recommendations