Long Range Transport of NOX, NOY, O3 and SOX over East Asia and the Western Pacific Ocean in Winter Season—A Numerical Analysis

  • Toshihiro Kitada
  • Masato Nishizawa
  • Yutaka Kondo
Part of the NATO • Challenges of Modern Society book series (NATS, volume 22)

Abstract

The PEM West-B. Pacific Exploratory Mission West: phase B. experiment was carried out from the beginning of February to the mid of March. 1994. The experiment explored chemical composition of the atmosphere over the tropical Pacific Ocean and the Pacific rim area of Asia. The experiment is valuable for understanding of long range transport/transformation of air pollutants released over Asian industrial area in late winter and early spring, and is useful for model validation in semi-global scale.

Keywords

Emission Source Western PACIFIC Ocean East ASIA Flight Height Anthropogenic Emission Source 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Akimoto, H., and Narita. H., 1994. Distribution of SO 2, NO x and CO 2 emissions from fuel combustion and industrial activities in Asia with 1° × 1° resolution. Atmos. Environ, 28:213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. ICAO, Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection: Working Group 3 1995, Report on the Emissions Inventory Sub-group. Bonn, Germany, June.Google Scholar
  3. Kitada, T., 1987, Turbulence structure of sea breeze front and its implication in air pollution transport-Application of k–ε turbulence model. Boundary-Layer Meteor., 41:217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Kitada, T., 1994, Transport, transformation and deposition model for acidic species. Meteorological Research Notes, 182:95 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  5. Kitada, T., Isogawa, S., and Kondo, Y., 1996, Long range transport, of NO X , SO X and O 3 over east Asia and the northern Pacific ocean caused by typhoons. Air Pollution Modelling and Its Application XI, Plenum Pub. Co., 191.Google Scholar
  6. Kitada, T., and Lee, P.C.-S., 1993, Numerical modeling of long-range transport of acidic species in association with meso-β-convective clouds across the Japan sea resulting in acid snow over coastal Japan-II. Results and discussion. Atmos. Environ., 27A:1077.Google Scholar
  7. Kitada, T., Lee, P.C.-S., and Ueda, H., 1993, Numerical modeling of long-range transport of acidic species in association with meso-β-convective clouds across the Japan sea resulting in acid snow over coastal Japan-I. Model description and qualitative verifications. Atmos. Environ., 27A:1061.Google Scholar
  8. Kitada, T., Okamura, K., and Tanaka, S., 1997, Effects of topography and urbanization on local winds and thermal environment in Nohbi plain, coastal region of central Japan-A numerical analysis by meso-scale meteorological model with k-ε turbulence model. J. Appl. Meteor., 36, to appear.Google Scholar
  9. Knutson, E. O., and Stockham, J.D., 1976, Aerosol collection by snow and ice crystals. Atmos. Environ., 10:395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kumar, P.P., Manohar, G.K., and Kandalgaonkar, S.S., 1995, Global distribution of nitric oxide produced by lightning and its seasonal variation. J. Geophys. Res., 100:11, 203.Google Scholar
  11. Lerner, J., Matthews, E., and Fung, I., 1988, Methane emission from animals: a global high-resolution data base. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 2:139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lurmann, F.W., Lloyd, A.C., and Atkinson, R., 1986, A chemical mechanism for use in long-range transport/acid deposition computer modeling. J. Geophys. Res., 91:10905.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Matthews. E., and Fung, I., 1987, Methane emission from natural wetlands: global distribution, area, and environmental characteristics of sources. Global Biogeo-chemical Cycles, 1:61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Nakanishi, H., 1996, Emission sources and concentrations of non-methane hydrocarbons over the Nohbi plain in central Japan. Toyohashi Univ. Technology, B.S. thesis, 42 (in Japanese). Slinn, W.G.N., 1974, Dry deposition and resuspension of aerosol particles—a new look at some old problems. In R.J. Engelmann and G.A. Sehmel (coord.) Atmosphere-Surface Exchange of Particulate and Gaseous Pollutants, 1-40. Avail. NTIS, Springfield, Virginia as CONF-740921.Google Scholar
  15. Slinn, W.G.N., 1977, Some approximations for the wet and dry removal of particles and gases from the atmosphere. Water, Air, and Soil Poll, 7:513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Strand, A., and Hov, O., 1993, A two-dimensional zonally averaged transport model including convective motions and a new strategy for the numerical solution. J. Geophys. Res., 98:9023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Washington, W.M., and Williamson, D.L., 1977, A description of the NCAR global circulation models. In Methods in Computational Physics, Vol. 17: General Circulation Models of the Atmosphere, Academic Press, 111-265.Google Scholar
  18. Xie, P., and Arkin, P.A., 1995, An intercomparison of gauge observations and satellite estimates of monthly precipitation. J. Appl. Meteor., 34:1143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Yienger, J.J., and Levy II, H., 1995, Empirical model of global soil-biogenic NO X emissions. J. Geophys. Res., 100:11, 447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Toshihiro Kitada
    • 1
  • Masato Nishizawa
    • 1
  • Yutaka Kondo
    • 2
  1. 1.Dept. of Ecological EngineeringToyohashi University of TechnologyToyohashiJapan 441
  2. 2.Solar-Terrestrial Environment. Lab.Nagoya UniversityToyokawaJapan 442

Personalised recommendations