The Feasibility and Effectiveness of Summer Season or Episodic SO2 Emission Controls to Reduce Acidic Deposition in Eastern North America

  • Brand L. Niemann
Part of the NATO · Challenges of Modern Society book series (NATS, volume 10)

Abstract

While it is generally agreed that an acid deposition problem exists in eastern North America where depositions have exceeded the natural buffering capacity of the aquatic ecosystem, the most fair and economical solution to controlling precursor emissions is very controversial and subject to scientific uncertainty. The search for a fair and economical solution has evolved in recent years from considering a large uniform percentage rollback in SO2 emissions from all sources in eastern North America to protect a number of small geographically dispersed sensitive areas, to considering a much smaller, non-uniform, reduction from primarily utility sources in a subregion, like just 10–12 states, to protect primarily the Adirondack sensitive area in upper New York State, The term “targeted approach” has been applied to the latter since the control strategy is targeting a limited geographical source region, receptor area, and source category. Some proponents of the targeted approach have suggested that it could be carried even a step further by targeting the SO2 emission control to primarily the season or episodes which contribute most to the annual total wet sulfate depositions1,2. It is generally known that wet sulfate depositions are greatest in the summer season when the precipitation amounts are generally greatest and SO2 to (math) photo- and aqueous-phase chemistries are enhanced by abundant solar radiation, moisture, and pollutants like oxidants.

Keywords

Summer Season Sensitive Area Control Efficiency Area Contribution Northeastern State 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Work Group 3A (Strategies Development and Implementation), Phase I Final Report Submitted to the Coordinating Committee in Fulfillment of the Requirements of the Memorandum of Intent on Transboundary Air Pollution (February 1981).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. A. Fay, D. Golomb, and J. Gruhl, Controlling Acid Rain, Energy Laboratory Report No. MIT-EL 83–004, Massachusetts Insititute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, pp. 28–30(1983).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    B. L. Niemann, The 1981 Precipitation Chemistry Data Set: Compilation, Display, Intercomparison, and Interpretation, Paper 84–19.3, 77th Annual Meeting of the Air Pollution Control Association, June 24–29, San Francisco, CA, Pittsburgh, PA(1984).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    B. L. Niemann, The Feasibility and Effectiveness of Summer Season or Episodic SO2 Emission Controls to Reduce Acidic Deposition in Eastern North America, Acid Rain Staff Paper, Office of Air and Radiation, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D. C. 20460(July 1984)(Available from the author.)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Work Group 3B (Emissions, Costs, and Engineering Assessment), Final Report Submitted to the Coordinating Committee in Fulfillment of the Requirements of the Memorandum of Intent on Transboundary Air Pollution (June 15, 1982).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    E. H. Pechan and Associates, Estimates of Sulfur Oxides Emissions from the Electric Utility Industry, Report Prepared for the U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development, Washington, D.C.(Volumes I and II)(July 1982).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    E. H. Pechan and Associates, Highest 500 Non-Utility SO2 Emission Sources from Final 1980 NEDS File, NEDS Retrieval and Sort for the Office of Technology Assessment(Aggregation by B.L. Niemann 10/83)(1983).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Regional Modeling Subgroup Report, Final Report Technical Basis, Submitted to Work Group 2 in Fulfillment of the Requirements of the Memorandum of Intent on Transboundary Air Pollution signed by Canada and United States on August 5, 1980, Report No. 2F-M(November 15, 1982).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Work Group 2(Atmospheric Sciences and Analysis), Final Report 2F Submitted to the Coordinating Committee in Fulfillment of the Requirements of the Memorandum of Intent on Transboundary Air Pollution(November 15, 1982).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    B. L. Niemann, Further Analysis of Relationships Between Scavenging Ratios for Exceptional Episodes and Air Quality and Storm Parameters, Transactions of the APCA Specialty Conference on the Meteorology of Acid Deposition, October 16–19, 1983, Hartford, CT, Pittsburgh, PA(1984).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    B. L. Niemann, An Analysis of Regional Acid Deposition Episodes and the Feasibility of Their Deterministic Simulation, Water Quality Bulletin, 8, 3, 143–149 and 168–169(1983).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    National Research Council, Committee on Atmospheric Transport and Chemical Transformation in Acid Precipitation, Acid Deposition: Atmospheric Processes in Eastern North America, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.(June 1983).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    National Research Council, Panel on Precipitation Processes, Atmospheric Precipitation: Prediction and Research Problems, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., pp. 48 – 49(1980).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. Korshover, Climatology of Stagnating Anticyclones East of the Rocky Mountains, 1936–1976, NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL ARL-55, Rockville, MD(1976).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. Korshover and J. K. Angell, A Review of Air-Stagnation Cases in the Eastern United States During 1981 — Annual Summary, Monthly Weather Review, 110, 1515–1518(1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    B. L. Niemann, Further Analysis of the Feasibility of Simulating Regional Acid Deposition Episodes, paper in preparation(1985).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    R. E. Munn, Rapporteur, The Detection of Trends in Wet Deposition Data: Report of a Workshop, Environmental Monograph Series EM-4, Institute for Environmental Studies, The University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, M5S 1A4, April, pp. 44–47(1984).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brand L. Niemann
    • 1
  1. 1.Acid Rain Staff(OAR-445), Office of Air and RadiationU. S. Environmental Protection AgencyUSA

Personalised recommendations