Indirect Aggression in Boys and Girls

  • Kirsti M. J. Lagerspetz
  • Kaj Björkqvist
Part of the The Plenum Series in Social/Clinical Psychology book series (SSSC)


Traditionally, men and boys have been regarded as more aggressive than women and girls. This is supported by the fact that, with few exceptions, males are more aggressive than females in most animal species. A review of these issues was presented by Moyer (1977). In humans, there is evidence for a higher level of physical aggression in males than in females. Criminal statistics show that men outnumber women as perpetrators of physical violence in all societies. Women are also aggressive, however, and researchers in different fields have started to pay attention to the forms of female aggression. For instance, anthropologists have described violence committed by women in different cultures (Burbank, 1987; Cook, 1992; Fry, 1992; Glazer, 1992; Schuster, 1983). Female aggression is found in all regions of the world in a great variety of forms.


Aggressive Behavior Physical Aggression Aggressive Reaction Verbal Aggression Friendship Group 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kirsti M. J. Lagerspetz
    • 1
  • Kaj Björkqvist
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of TurkuTurkuFinland
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyÅbo Akademi UniversityVasaFinland

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