Protein Interrelationships in Roughages as Affecting Ruminant Dietary Protein Adequacy

  • J. E. Knipfel
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 86)


Roughages have been defined (Troelsen, 1967) as feedstuffs which are sufficiently fibrous that their intakes and rates of passage through the ruminant may be limited by the rate of physical and/or chemical breakdown in the reticulorumen. Within these terms, roughages would include such feedstuffs as pasturage, hays, crop residues, silages, forestry and/or other byproducts, and would represent the basic feed for the herbivorous livestock of the world. A common characteristic of roughages is the presence of a complex carbohydrate fraction composed largely of cellulose and hemicellulose (Pigden, 1955). Mammalian species do not secrete cellulases in their digestive juices (Pigden, 1955; Lewis, 1961a; Phillipson, 1964); therefore, cellulosic materials are essentially indigestible by the monogastric animal, and other nutrients trapped within the fibres may also be unavailable.


Rice Straw Feed Intake Sulfur Amino Acid Digestible Energy Amino Acid Requirement 
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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. E. Knipfel
    • 1
  1. 1.Research StationResearch Branch, Agriculture CanadaSwift CurrentCanada

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