Biological Effects of Alkali-Treated Protein and Lysinoalanine: An Overview

  • D. H. Gould
  • J. T. MacGregor
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 86)


The renal alterations induced by alkali-treated protein and lysinoalanine are reviewed and their biological implications discussed. Alkali-treated proteins and lysinoalanine, an unusual amino acid formed in proteins during alkali treatment, have been shown to produce a renal alteration characterized by nuclear and cytoplasmic enlargement, with alterations in DNA synthesis, mitotsis and nucleoprotein. These changes are localized in the straight portion of the proximal renal tubule and have been observed in rats but not in several other species. The nephrotoxic effect of syrt thetic lysinoalanine has been consistently demonstrated, but the ability of alkali-treated protein to induce renal alterations is apparently modified by factors other than lysinoalanine content. Factors which may influence the development of the kidney lesions in animals fed alkali-treated protein are discussed, including nutritional factors, the chemical form of lysinoalanine in the protein, species differences, and metabolic fate. Other clinical and experimental conditions that result in similar renal alterations are presented for comparison with the lysinoalanine induced lesion, and possible functional consequences are considered.


Adenoma Cysteine Lysine Arginine Methionine 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. H. Gould
    • 1
  • J. T. MacGregor
    • 1
  1. 1.Western Regional Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research ServiceU.S. Department of AgricultureBerkeleyUSA

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