The Role of the Adrenergic/Cholinergic Balance in the Immune-Neuroendocrine Circuit

  • Konrad Schauenstein
  • Ingo Rinner
  • Peter Felsner
  • Dietmar Hofer
  • Harald Mangge
  • Elisabeth Skreiner
  • Peter Liebmann
  • Amiela Globerson
Part of the Hans Selye Symposia on Neuroendocrinology and Stress book series (HSSN, volume 3)


The concept of an extrinsic regulation of the immune system through neuroendocrine signals is well established, as is the fact that the immune system in turn informs the brain about contacts with antigens via “immunotransmitters”, i.e. cytokines and/or hormones with central effects.1 All these data that have accumulated during the last few years have contributed to the vision of the immune system as “the sixth sense”.2 While there is certainly still more work needed to define the physiology of this concept in all details, strong evidence has been obtained that the immune-neuroendocrine dialogue is of relevance for the homeostasis of the immune response, as defects in the activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis by immune signals were found to be associated with and/or to predispose to spontaneously occurring3 and experimentally induced autoimmune diseases in animal models.4,5


Parasympathetic Nervous System Cholinergic Innervation Sixth Sense Mitogen Reactivity Neuroendocrine Signal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Konrad Schauenstein
    • 1
  • Ingo Rinner
    • 1
  • Peter Felsner
    • 1
  • Dietmar Hofer
    • 1
  • Harald Mangge
    • 2
  • Elisabeth Skreiner
    • 1
  • Peter Liebmann
    • 1
  • Amiela Globerson
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of General and Experimental PathologyUniversity of GrazAustria
  2. 2.Department of PediatricsUniversity of GrazAustria
  3. 3.Department of Cell BiologyThe Weizmann Institute of SciencesRehovotIsrael

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