Ventilatory Response to Passive Head Up Tilt

  • J. M. Serrador
  • R. L. Bondar
  • R. L. Hughson
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 450)


Humans have several adaptive mechanisms to deal with the effect of gravity during upright postures. The effect of passive upright tilt (HUT) on respiration has been shown to reduce the end tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PETCO2) and increase the end tidal partial pressure of oxygen (PETO2) (1,4,5,9,15–19). The typical 4 mmHg drop in PETCO2 has been shown to correspond with a decrease in arterial CO2 (PaCO2) of approximately 2 mmHg (1,5). McHenry et al. (17) found that PaCO2 decreased by ~1 mmHg during 30° HUT. Boutellier and coworkers (6) demonstrated that as subjects went from +1 Gz force to +2 and +3, PaCO2 continued to decrease.


Ventilatory Response Breathing Frequency Central Chemoreceptor Upright Tilt Accommodation Period 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Anthonisen, N. R., J. R. Bartlett, and S. M. Tenney. Postural effect on ventilatory control. J. Appl. Physiol. 20: 191–196, 1965.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anthonisen, N. R. and J. Milic-Emili. Distribution of pulmonary perfusion in erect man. J. Appl. Physiol. 21:760–766, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anthonisen, N. R., P. C. Robertson, and W. R. Ross. Gravity-depende sequential emptying of lung regions. J. Appl. Physiol. 28: 589–595, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barrett, J., F. Cerny, J. A. Hirsch, and B. Bishop. Control of breathing patterns and abdominal muscles during graded loads and tilt. J. Appl. Physiol. 76: 2473–2480, 1994.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bjurstedt, H., C. M. Hesser, G. Liljestrand, and G. Matell. Effects of Posture on Alveolar-Arterial CO2 and O2 Differences and on Alveolar Dead Space in Man. Acta Physiol. Scand. 54: 65–82, 1962.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Boutellier, U., R. Arieli, and L. E. Farhi. Ventilation and CO2 response during +Gz acceleration. Respir. Physiol. 62: 141–151, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bryan, A. C., J. Milic-Emili, and D. Pengelly. Effect of gravity on the distribution of pulmonary ventilation. J. Appl. Physiol. 21: 778–784, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Butler, G. C., Xing HC, Northey DR, and Hughson RL. Reduced orthostatic tolerance following 4 h head-down tilt. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 62: 30, 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cencetti, S., G. Bandinelli, and A. Lagi. Effect of PCO2 changes induced by head-upright tilt on transcranial Doppler recordings. Stroke 28: 1195–1197, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cherniack, N. S. and G. S. Longobardo. Oxygen and carbon dioxide gas stores of the body. [Review] [219 refs]. Physiol. Rev. 50: 196–243, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Farhi, L. E. and H. Rahn. Dynamics of Changes in Carbon Dioxide Stores. Anesthesiology 21: 604–614, 1960.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hughes, J. M. Regional lung function: physiology and clinical applications. Clin. Physiol. 5: 19–31, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jones, P. W., W. French, M. L. Weissman, and K. Wasserman. Ventilatory responses to cardiac output changes in patients with pacemakers. Journal of Applied Physiology: Respiratory, Environmental & Exercise Physiology 51:1103–1107, 1981.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Liner, M. H. Tissue gas stores of the body and head-out immersion in humans. J. Appl Physiol. 75: 1285–1293, 1993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Loeppky, J. A. and U. C. Luft. Fluctuations in O2 stores and gas exchange with passive changes in posture. J. Appl. Physiol. 39: 47–53, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Matalon, S. V. and L. E. Farhi. Cardiopulmonary readjustments in passive tilt. J. Appl. Physiol. 47: 503–507, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    McHenry, L. C., J. F. Fazekas, and J. F. Sullivan. Cerebral hemodynamics of syncope. Am. J. Med. Sci. 241: 173–178, 1961.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Miyamoto, Y., T. Tamura, T. Hiura, T. Nakamura, J. Higuchi, and T. Mikami. The dynamic response of the cardiopulmonary parameters to passive head-up tilt. Jpn. J. Physiol 32: 245–258, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Newberry, P. D., A. W. Hatch, and J. M. MacDonald. Cardio-respiratory events preceding syncope induced by a combnation of lower body negative pressure ad head-up tilt. Aerosp. Med. 41: 373–378, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rea, H. H., S. J. Withy, E. R. Seelye, and E. A. Harris. The effects of posture on venous admixture and respiratory dead space in health. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 115: 571–580, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Whipp, B. J., N. Lamarra, S. A. Ward, J. A. Davis, and K. Wasserman. Estimating arterial PCO2 from flow-weighted and time-average alveolar PCO2 during exercise. In: Respiratory Control—A Modeling Perspective, edited by G. D. Swanson, F. S. Grodins, and R. L. Hughson. New York: Plenum Press, 1988.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. M. Serrador
    • 1
  • R. L. Bondar
    • 1
  • R. L. Hughson
    • 2
  1. 1.Cerebral Blood Flow Lab, School of KinesiologyUniversity of Western OntarioLondonCanada
  2. 2.Cardiorespiratory and Vascular Dynamics Lab, Department of KinesiologyUniversity of WaterlooWaterlooCanada

Personalised recommendations