Properties of Materials for Use in Liquid Hydrogen Containment Vessels

  • S. J. Canfer
  • D. Evans
Part of the Advances in Cryogenic Engineering book series (ACRE, volume 44)


This paper reviews the opportunities available for hydrogen fuelled transport systems and compares the advantages of gaseous and liquid hydrogen fuels. In addition, the paper outlines the requirements for a container system for hydrogen in bulk gaseous and liquid form. The available data base on the mechanical properties of organic material based composite materials is reviewed and results are presented of the effects of short term and long term exposure to liquid hydrogen. Few data have been published since 1964 and although storage vessels built from glass fabric reinforced composites would have little advantage over metallic materials, there are no data available on the properties of carbonfibre composites in liquid hydrogen. Evidence is available to suggest that there is a degradation in properties that results from the effect of liquid hydrogen over and above the effect of temperature. It is concluded that there is an urgent need to evaluate modern matrix systems, reinforced with carbon fibres, using liquid hydrogen as the test environment.


Hydrogen Storage Resin System Liquid Hydrogen Storage Option Poly Ether Ether Ketone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    J.A. Barclay, Cryofuels, Now and in the Future, “Advances in Cryogenic Engineering Vol 41” Plenum, New York (1996)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A Ciancia, G Pede, M Brighigna and V Perrone, Compressed hydrogen fuelled vehicles: reasons for choice and developments at ENEA, Int J Hydrogen Energy Vol 21 No 5 pp397406 (1996)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    H Vandenborre and R Sierens, Greenbus: a hydrogen fuelled city bus, Int J Hydrogen Energy Vol 21 No 6 pp 521–524 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    W Peschka The status of handling and storage techniques for liquid hydrogen in motor vehicles Int J Hydrogen Energy Vol 12 No 11 pp753–764 (1987)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    L M Das, On-board hydrogen storage systems for automotive application, Int J Hydrogen Energy Vol 21 No 9 pp 789–800 ( 1996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    L O Williams and D E Spond, A storage tank for vehicular storage of liquid hydrogen, Applied Energy 6: 99–112 (1980)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M A Daugherty, F C Prenger, D E Daney, D D Hill and F J Eduskuty, A Comparison of Hydrogen Vehicle Storage Options using the EPA Urban Driving Schedule, “Advances in Cryogenic Engineering Vol 41” Plenum, New York (1996)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    B C Dunnam, Hydrogen economy energy conference, “Airforce Experience in the Use of Liquid Hydrogen as an Aircraft Fuel” Plenum Press, 1974Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    H2 Cryoplane, Hydrogen Fuelled Aircraft. Booklet published by Daimler-Benz Aerospace, Hamburg, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    G Burkhart and E Klippel, Strength investigation of FRP material (epoxy resin) in LH2 and L02, Cryogenics, Sept 1974Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    N O Brink, Determination of the Performance of Plastic Laminates under Cryogenic Temperatures, Report No ASD-TDR-62–794, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio August 1962Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    D W Chamberlain, B R Lloyd and R L Tennent, Determination of the Performance of Plastic Laminates under Cryogenic Temperatures, ASD-TDR-62–794 Part 2, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, March 1964Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    D W Chamberlain, Mechanical Properties Testing of Plastic Laminate Materials down to 20K, 1964 Cryogenic Engineering Conference, Philadelphia. (1964)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    M P Hanson, Preliminary Investigation of Filament-Wound Glass-Reinforced Plastics and Liners for Cryogenic Pressure Vessels, NASA Report TN D 2741, (1965)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    R Molho and L M Soffer, Cryogenic Resins for Glass-Filament-Wound Composites, NASA CR 72114 (1967)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    M P Hanson, Static and Dynamic Fatigue Behaviour of Glass Filament-Wound Pressure Vessels at Ambient and Cryogenic Temperatures, “Advances In Cryogenic Engineering Vol. 17” Plenum Press, New York (1971)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    D Evans, S J Robertson, S Walmsley and J Wilson, Measurement of the Permeability of Carbon Fibre/PEEK Composites in: “Cryogenic Materials 88, Volume 2 Structural Materials” R P Reed, ed., ICMC, Boulder, Colorado (1988), p. 755Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    W J Bailey, D A Fester, J M Toth, Jr., LH2 On-Orbit Storage Tank Support Trunnion Design and Verification, “Advances In Cryogenic Engineering Vol. 32” Plenum Press, New York (1986)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. J. Canfer
    • 1
  • D. Evans
    • 1
  1. 1.Rutherford Appleton LaboratoryUK

Personalised recommendations