Properties of Candidate ITER Vacuum Impregnation Insulation Systems

  • Paul E. Fabian
  • James B. Schutz
  • Craig S. Hazelton
  • Richard P. Reed
Part of the An International Cryogenic Materials Conference Publication book series (ACRE, volume 40)


Composite insulation systems to be used in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) must meet demanding design requirements, including combined shear and compressive stresses, performance at cryogenic temperatures, and continued mechanical and electrical performance after exposure to high levels of neutron and gamma radiation. Several polymeric insulation systems that are reinforced with boron-free glass fabric and are suitable for the vacuum-pressure impregnation (VPI) method of fabrication were screened at 76 K using the short-beam-shear (SBS) test, with the leading candidates then tested in combined shear/compression at cryogenic temperatures. The shear/compression specimens were comprised of two, diameter, stainless steel chips bonded together by the composite insulation, allowing characterization of its adhesive and cohesive properties. Using the shear/compression test at different ratios of shear to compression, a shear/compression failure envelope for each insulation system can be determined. Production variables of the shear/compression specimens, including molding techniques, were also investigated. The effects of desizing (4 h at 400°C) and heat treating (50 h at 700°C) the glass fabric to simulate the heat treatment of Nb3Sn superconductor, prior to vacuum impregnation, were also examined.


Cryogenic Temperature Glass Fabric Resin System Failure Envelope International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Memo from R.P. Reed, Cryogenic Materials, Inc. to J. Schutz and P. Fabian, Composite Technology Development, Inc., (June 18, 1993 ).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    N.A. Munshi and H.W. Weber, Reactor neutron and gamma irradiation of various composite materials, Adv. Cryo. Eng.-Mat. 38A: 233 (1991).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    N.J. Simon, A review of irradiation effects on organic-matrix insulation, National Institute of Standards and Technology, NISTIR 3999, Boulder, CO. (1992).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    G. Liptak et al., Radiation tests on selected electrical insulating materials for high-power and high voltage application, CERN 85-02, CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva, Switzerland. (1985).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    S. Egusa, Effects of neutrons and gamma-rays on polymer matrix composites as low-temperature materials, Inter. J. Radiation App. and Instrumentation, Part C. 37: 147 (1991).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    D. Evans, J.T. Morgan, and G.B. Stapleton, Irradiation damage studies of some epoxy resin systems of reduced viscosity, RHEL/R 251, Rutherford Laboratory, Chilton, England. (1972).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Huguet, Specification for a manufacturing feasibility study for the ITER TF and CS coils, draft, (August 28, 1992 ).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    R.P. Reed, J.B. Dan, and J.B. Schutz, Short-beam shear testing of candidate magnet insulators, Cryogenics. 32: 9 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Memo from C.W. Bushnell, ITER EDA, to R.P. Reed, Cryogenic Materials, Inc., (June 10, 1993 ).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    N.J. Simon, R.P. Reed, and R. P. Walsh, Compression and shear tests of vacuum-impregnated composites at cryogenic temperatures, Adv. Cryo. Eng.-Mat. 38A: 363 (1991).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    T.J. McManamy, G. Kanemoto, and P. Snook, Insulation irradiation test programme for the compact ignition tokamak, Cryogenics 31: 277 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    T.J. McManamy, J.E. Brasier, and P. Snook, Insulation interlaminar shear strength testing with compression and irradiation, in Proc. IEEE 13th Symposium on Fusion Engineering, IEEE, New York, Vol. 1: 342 (1990).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    R. Poehlchen et al., The mechanical strength of irradiated electric insulation, Adv. Cryo. Eng.-Mat. 36: 893 (1990).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    P. Bruzzone, K. Nylund, and W.J. Muster, Electrical insulation system for superconducting magnets according to the wind and react technique, Adv. Cryo. Eng.-Mat. 36: 999 (1990).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul E. Fabian
    • 1
  • James B. Schutz
    • 1
  • Craig S. Hazelton
    • 1
  • Richard P. Reed
    • 2
  1. 1.Composite Technology Development, Inc.BoulderUSA
  2. 2.Cryogenic Materials, Inc.BoulderUSA

Personalised recommendations