A Possible 1.8 K Refrigeration Cycle for the Large Hadron Collider

  • F. Millet
  • P. Roussel
  • L. Tavian
  • U. Wagner
Part of the Advances in Cryogenic Engineering book series (ACRE, volume 43)

Abstract

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) under construction at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, CERN, will make use of superconducting magnets operating below 2.0 K. This requires, for each of the eight future cryogenic installations, an isothermal cooling capacity of up to 2.4 kW obtained by vaporisation of helium II at 1.6 kPa and 1.8 K. The process design for this cooling duty has to satisfy several demands. It has to be adapted to four already existing as well as to four new refrigerators. It must cover a dynamic range of one to three, and it must allow continuous pump-down from 4.5 K to 1.8 K. A possible solution, as presented in this paper, includes a combination of cold centrifugal and warm volumetric compressors. It is characterised by a low thermal load on the refrigerator, and a large range of adaptability to different operation modes. The expected power factor for 1.8 K cooling is given, and the proposed control strategy is explained.

Keywords

Large Hadron Collider Centrifugal Compressor Suction Pressure Cooling Capacity Screw Compressor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    The LHC study group, “The Large Hadron Collider, Conceptual Design,” CERN Report/AC/95–05(LHC)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    U. Wagner, “The LHC refrigerators with surface-located cold boxes for the temperature range 300–4.5 K,” LHC Project Note 70 (1996)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    S. Claudet, W.K. Erdt, P.K. Frandsen, Ph. Gayet, N.O. Solheim, Ch. Titcomb and G. Winkler, Four 12 kW / 4.5 K cryoplants at CERN, Cryogenics (1994) 34 ICEC Supplement, p. 83–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ph. Lebrun, G. Riddone, L. Tavian and U. Wagner, Demands in refrigeration capacity for the Large Hadron Collider, in: “Proceedings of ICEC 16,” T. Haruyama, T. Mitsui, K. Yamafuji, ed., Elsevier Science (1997), p. 95–98Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    C.H. Rode, D. Arenius, W.C. Chronis, D. Kashey and M. Keesee, 2.0 K CEBAF cryogenics, in: “Advances in Cryogenic Engineering,” R.W. Fast, ed. Plenum Press, 35A (1990), p. 275–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    G. Claudet and R. Aymar, Tore supra and helium-II cooling of large high-field magnets, in: “Advances in Cryogenic Engineering,” R.W. Fast, ed. Plenum Press, 35A (1990), p. 55–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    B.S. Bevins, W.C. Chronis, and M.S. Keesee, Automatic pumdown of the 2 K cold compressors for the CEBAF central helium liquefier, in: “Advances in Cryogenic Engineering,” Plenum Press, N.Y. (1996), p. 663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Millet
    • 1
  • P. Roussel
    • 1
  • L. Tavian
    • 2
  • U. Wagner
    • 2
  1. 1.DSM/DRFMC/SBTCEA GrenobleGrenoble cedex 9France
  2. 2.LHC DivisionCERNGeneva 23Switzerland

Personalised recommendations