Heat Transport in Saturated He II with Surface Heat Transfer in the Turbulent Counterflow Regime
Many large cryogenic systems provide refrigeration using pressurized He II that is cooled by a saturated bath heat exchanger. These heat exchangers consist of a closed-end tube or vessel filled with saturated helium which is immersed in the pressurized bath. Significant temperature gradients are possible within the saturated helium due to high heat fluxes through the liquid. To more fully understand the temperature gradient in the saturated bath and its effects on heat exchanger performance, the relevant form of the heat equation was solved analytically and numerically. To verify the results of the mathematical model, an experiment was performed to measure the temperature gradient within the saturated helium bath of a heat exchanger at various heat loads. Good agreement between the numerical results and the experimental data was achieved.
KeywordsHeat Exchanger Heat Load Saturation Temperature Vapor Pressure Curve National High Magnetic Field Laboratory
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