Integrated Design of Cryogenic Refrigeration Systems for SMES Systems

  • Brian J. Bowers
  • Joseph L. SmithJr.
Part of the Advances in Cryogenic Engineering book series (ACRE, volume 43)


This study investigated techniques for specifically matching the designs of a SMES magnet and its cryogenic refrigeration system. Computer models estimated the heat that can be removed by a steady flow of helium through a CICC flow passage. This data was generalized for use with flow passages of different sizes. The transient response of a recirculator-loop cooling scheme was modeled in a manner consistent with the characteristics of the magnet, pump, heat exchangers, and buffer tank. Several buffers were compared and a novel buffering technique was proposed. The results showed that the pumping power required for cooling of CICC magnets can significantly increase the refrigeration load. The pumping power can be reduced by re-cooling the helium before it enters the pump and by using a higher pressure in the system. Parallel flow cooling schemes and high efficiency pumps can also decrease the pumping power and allow a smaller refrigerator to be used. These results show it is important to include pump characteristics when calculating SMES refrigeration loads.


Pump Power Heat Load Refrigeration System Series Flow Cool Scheme 
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  1. 1.
    B.J. Bowers. “Integrated Cryogenic Refrigeration System Design For Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage Systems”. Masters thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1997).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. B Jones and G. A Hawkins. “Engineering Thermodynamics,” 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York (1986).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J.W. Lue, et al. Test of a cryogenic helium pump. “Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, Volume 27,” Plenum Press, New York, (1982), pg 785.0Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian J. Bowers
    • 1
  • Joseph L. SmithJr.
    • 1
  1. 1.Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA

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