Liquid Hydrogen Densification Heat Exchanger

  • G. E. McIntosh
  • R. J. Stochl
  • T. M. Tomsik
Part of the Advances in Cryogenic Engineering book series (ACRE, volume 43)


Densification (subcooling) of liquid hydrogen and oxygen propellants offers potential reductions in size and mass of space launch vehicles. Oxygen densification is easily accomplished by heat exchange with a bath of boiling liquid nitrogen. Parahydrogen presents a more difficult problem because the cooling bath temperature is limited by its 13.803 K triple point value. To achieve a high degree of densification, the parahydrogen cooling bath must be held close to its triple point and the heat exchanger exit AT must be small.

We report on a parahydrogen heat exchanger designed to remove approximately 60 kW from a 0.8165 kg/s (1.8 lb/s) flow with an exit AT of 0.6 K with respect to a bath held at 14.4 K or lower. Details of the test system, physical design of the heat exchanger, and heat transfer analysis are given. Test results are presented and compared with design predictions.


Heat Exchanger Liquid Hydrogen Aluminum Extrusion NASA Lewis Research Butterfly Valve 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. E. McIntosh
    • 1
  • R. J. Stochl
    • 2
  • T. M. Tomsik
    • 2
  1. 1.Cryogenic Technical Services, Inc.LongmontUSA
  2. 2.NASA Lewis Research CenterClevelandUSA

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