Emerging 21st Century Markets and Outlook for Applied Superconducting Products

  • Carl H. Rosner
Part of the Advances in Cryogenic Engineering book series (ACRE, volume 43)


The spectacular discoveries in superconductivity that occurred during the 20th Century, as reported in the scientific literature and worldwide news media, have generally overshadowed the necessary and important underlying developments in cryogenic technology and equipment. The first and still only major commercial and economically viable application of superconductivity — MR1 systems that have revolutionized medical diagnostics — owes much of its success not only to the availability of high-performance superconductor wire but also to advances in cryogenic technology.

Discoveries within the past decade of higher-temperature superconductive (HTS) materials have more recently generated much renewed interest in the need for reliable and cost-effective cryogenic systems. This historic interrelationship of the two technologies will become increasingly important in the early years of the 21st Century, when new multi-billion-dollar worldwide markets for superconductive products and equipment are expected to emerge.

HTS-based products, now under development, range from areas of applications not only in medical systems but also in electronics, communications, electric power, industrial processing and products, and transportation, among other likely markets. These potentially enormous opportunities are generally expected to utilize readily available liquid-nitrogen-based equipment, an assumption that seems overly simplistic and possibly naive. This presentation will review the prospects for new superconductive product areas and associated cryogenic equipment needs, as well as the corresponding technical and economic challenges faced by the superconductive and cryogenic industries.


Magnetic Resonance Imaging System International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor Superconductive Magnetic Energy Storage Superconductive Wire Apply Superconductivity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    H. Kamerlingh Onnes, Leiden Comm. 120b, 122b. 124c, (191 1).Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    J. Bardeen, L.N. Cooper and JR. Scbrieffer, Phys. Rev. 108, 1175 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Paul Chu, High Temperature Superconducting Materials: A Decade of Impressive Advancement of Tc, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, Vol. 7, No. 2, June 1997.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    D.C. Larbalestier. The Road of Conductors: 10 Years Make a Difference, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, Vol 7, No. 2, June 1997.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    T. Van Duzer, Superconductor Electronics, 1986–1996, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, Vol. 7, No. 2, June 1997.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Paul M. Grant, Superconductivity and Electric Power: Promises, Promises. Past, Present and Future, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, Vol. 7, No. 2, June 1997.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    D. Bruce Montgomery, The Future Prospects for Large Scale Applications of Superconductivity, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, Vol. 7, No. 2, June 1997Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    A. Silver, Superconductivity in Electronics, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, Vol. 7, No. 2, June 1997Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    W. Meissner and R. Ochsenfeld, Naturwissenschaften 21, 787–788, 1933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    H. London, Proc. Roy. Soc. A152, 650, 1935.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    PL. Kapitza, Zhum. Tekhn, Fis 9, 99, 1939.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    SC. Collins, SCIENCE 11 6, 289 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    A.A. Abrikosov, Soviet Phys. — JETP 5@ 1174 (1957).Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    L.D. Landau, Phys. Rev. 75, 884,11,3, 1949.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    J.K. Hulm, R.D. Blaugher, Phys. Rev. 123, 1569 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    B.T. Matthias, Science & Technology of Superconductivity, Vol. 1, 263, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [171.
    J.E. Kunzler, E. Buehler, F.S.L. Hsu and J.H. Wernick, Phys. Rev. Lett 6, 89, 1961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    General Electric — Private Communication.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Z.J.J. Stekly, et al. A large superconducting magnet for MHD power generation, Boulder, June 1966.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    T.J. Doyle, HO. Stevens. Inst, of Marine Eng., London, 1984.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Dedication of the Energy Saver, U.S. Dept. of Energy, April 1984.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    P.C. Lauterbur, NMR in Medicine, Fourth Ann. Conf, Tokyo, Japan, (1981).Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    Proceedings — International Industrial Symposium, New Orleans, 1989Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    JG. Bednorz and K.A. Müller, Z. Physic, Vol. B64, p. 189–193, 1986.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    M.K. Wu et al. Phys. Rev. Letter, Vol. 58. p. 908–910, (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    C.H. Chu et al. Phys. Rev. Letter, Vol. 58, p. 405–410, (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    W.E. Gifford, Proceedings of 1st International Cryogenic Eng. Conf., Tokyo and Kyoto, p.221, (1967)Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    Adapted by R. Longsworth using Reference 27. See also M.J. Boiarski, V.M. Brodianski, R.C. Longsworth, Retrospective of Mixed-Refrigerant Technology and Modern Status of Cryocoolers Based on One-Stage, Oil-Lubricated Compressors, CEC ‘97/Portland, OR..Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    W.A. Little, Journal of Polymer Science Pt. C, No. 29 (1970)Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    Feasibility Study on Superconductivity Application Field, Exec. Summary Report, ISTEC, March 1997Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    T. Miki. K. Saito, et al, Sugar Content Detection in Watermelon, Advances in Superconductivity VIII, 8th Inter-national Symposium on Superconductivity (ISS ‘95) Nov. 2, 1995.Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    Intermagnetics General Corp., News Release, June 1997.Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    R.F. Barron, Cryogenic Systems, 2nd Ed., 1985Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    B.A. Hands, Ed.: Cryogenic Engineering, 1986Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    Rail Systems Technology, Vol. 4, No. 21, Sept. 2, 1996Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    H. Nakashima, “The Current State of Maglev Development in Japan,” Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. No. 148, Applied Superconductivity, Edinburg, July 3–6, 1995.Google Scholar
  37. [37]
    W. Hassenzahl, “Superconducting magnetic energy storage,” IEEE Trans. Mag. Vol. 25, pp. 750–758, 1989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. [38]
    J.D. Rogers, H.J. Boenig, R.I. Schermer, and J.F. Hauer, “Operation of the 30 MJ SMES system in the Bonneville Power Administration electrical grid,” IEEE Trans. Mag. Vol. 21, pp. 752–755, 1985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. [39]
    B.J. Green, M. Huquet, “The ITER Project, Status and Prospects,” MT 14, 11–16 June, 1995, Tampere, Finland.Google Scholar
  40. [40]
    LR. Evans, The Present Status of LHC, IEEE Trans. Mag., vol. 32, no. 4, July 1996. Ed., 1985Google Scholar

BIBLIOGRAPHY — Further Reading

  1. D. Shoenberg, Superconductivity, C.U.P., 1952.Google Scholar
  2. F.E. Simon, et al. Low Temp. Physics, Four Lectures, Pergamon, London, 1952.Google Scholar
  3. S.C. Collins, R.L. Cannaday, Expansion Machines for Low Temperature Processes, 1958.Google Scholar
  4. R.B. Scott, CRYOGENIC ENG., D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc., NY. London, Canada, March 1959.Google Scholar
  5. K. Mendelssohn, Cryophysics, Interscience, London and New York, 1960.Google Scholar
  6. J. Bardeen, J.R. Schrieffer, Dept. of Physics, Univ. of minois, RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, Progress in Low Temperature Physics, Vol. m, April 1960.Google Scholar
  7. C J. Gorter, ed., Progress in Low Temperature Physics, 4 Vols., North Holland, Amsterdam, 1964.Google Scholar
  8. C.P. Bean, “Magnetization of High-Field Superconductors,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 36, 31–39 (1964). RCA REVIEW, Special Issue — Synthesis, Characterization, and Application of Superconducting Niobium Stannide (Nb3Sn), Vol. XXV, No. 3, September 1964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. CRYOGENIC ENGINEERING — Present Status and Future Development, Proceedings of First International Cryogenic Engineering Conference, Japan, April 1967.Google Scholar
  10. D.B. Montgomery, Solenoid magnet design, New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1969.Google Scholar
  11. M.N. Wilson, Superconducting Magnets, Oxford University Press (Oxford, New York, Toronto, 1983).Google Scholar
  12. W.J. Carr, AC Loss and Macroscopic Theory of Superconductors, (New York, London, Paris, 1983).Google Scholar
  13. E.W. Collings, App. SC, Vol. 1 Fundamentals, Vol. 2 Applications, Plenum Press (NY, London, 1986). Comp. review of properties of NbTi and excellent account of many topics pertinent to all Type II SC’s.Google Scholar
  14. SUPERCONDUCTOR INDUSTRY, Vols. 1–10,1988–1997.Google Scholar
  15. The Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd., SUPERCONDUCTIVITY 1988, Tokyo, Japan, December, 1988.Google Scholar
  16. B. Schechter, THE PATH OF NO RESISTANCE, 1989.Google Scholar
  17. M.W. Browne, Hopes For Superconductivity Begin To Fade, The NY Times, Section CI, June 6, 1989.Google Scholar
  18. V.D. Hunt, Technology Research Corp., Superconductivity Sourcebook, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1989. ST. Dale, SM. Wolf, T.R. Schneider, ENERGY APPLICATIONS OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, Vol. 1, Extended Summary Report, February 1990.Google Scholar
  19. Journal of Superconductivity, Special Issue: Bibliography of High-T. SC, Vol. 3, No. 1, March 1990.Google Scholar
  20. 2.
    2nd World Congress on Superconductivity — Prog, in High Temp. SC, Vol. 28, Texas, Sept. 1990.Google Scholar
  21. A National Program for the Superconducting Electric Power System of the Future, Prepared by the ad hocGoogle Scholar
  22. Industry Working Group on Power applications of High-Temperature Superconductors, April 1991.Google Scholar
  23. J. Vranich, Super-Trains — Solutions To America’s Transportation Gridlock, St. Martin’s Press, NY, December 1991.Google Scholar
  24. K. Krishen, CG. Burnham, WORLD CONGRESS ON SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, Proceedings of the 3rdGoogle Scholar
  25. International Conference and Exhibition, Part II, Munich, Germany, Sept. 15–18, 1992.Google Scholar
  26. SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, Special Section — New challenges for 1994, December 1993.Google Scholar
  27. FEDERAL RESEARCH PROGRAMS IN SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, Materials Technology Subcommittee Communications Group on Superconductivity, June 1994.Google Scholar
  28. F.C. Moon, Cornell Univ., Superconducting Lévitation — Applications To Bearings and Magnetic Transportation. JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC., 1994Google Scholar
  29. University of Cambridge, RESEARCH REVIEW 1994, Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Superconductivity, Cambridge Marketing Limited, 1994.Google Scholar
  30. T.P. Sheahen, Introduction to High-Temperature Superconductivity, Plenum, N.Y., 1994.Google Scholar
  31. K. Togano, “Bi-2212 Wires and Coils,” ISTEC Journal, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1995, pages 48–50.Google Scholar
  32. S. Huang, D. Dew-Hughes, et al. “Highly reproducible high critical cur-rent density in partial-melt Bi2Sr2CaCU20y/Ag tapes fabricated by electrophoretic deposition,” Super cond. Sci. Technology, Vol. 8 (1995), p 32–40.’CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. W.L. Carter, G.N. Riley, et al. “Adv. in the Development of Silver Sheathed (Bi,Pb)2223 Composite Conductors,” IEEE Trans, on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 5, No. 2, (June 1995), pages 1145–1149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. R.H. Hammond, “Thick Film YBCO for Wires and Tapes: Scaie-Up Issues and Cost Estimates,” Proceedings of ISS’95, Oct. 30th-Nov. 2nd, Hamamatsu, Japan, pages 1029–1033.Google Scholar
  35. 8.
    8th International Symp. on Superconductivity, Adv. in Superconductivity — VHI, Vols. I and 2, 1995.Google Scholar
  36. R.F. Giese, “The Status of Progress Toward High-Temperature Superconducting Bulk High-Amperage Conductors,” report for this task — January 1996.Google Scholar
  37. 1996 INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, “High Temperature Superconducting Electronics: Fundamentals and Applications”, Iwate, Japan, June 24–27, 1996.Google Scholar
  38. D.W. Hazelton, M.T. Gardner, J.A. Rice, M.S. Walker, CM. Trautwein and P. Haldar, ‘HTS Coil for the Navy’s Superconducting Homopolar Motor/Generator,” Intermagnetics General Corporation, 1996.Google Scholar
  39. J.P. Voccio, et al. “125 FIP Motor Field Winding Development,” App. SC Conf, PA., August, 1996.Google Scholar
  40. C.W. Chu, W.K. Chu, D.U. Gubser and K.A. Miller, PROCEEDINGS of the 10th ANNIVERSARY HTS WORKSHOP on Physics. Materials and Applications, 1996.Google Scholar
  42. EEEE Trans. Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 7, No. 2, June 1997.Google Scholar
  43. 1997 International Workshop on Superconductivity, June 15–18, 1997.Google Scholar
  44. J.W. Muehlhauser, R&D Roadmap to Achieve Electrical Wire Advs. from SS Coatings, July 1997.Google Scholar
  45. IEEE SPECTRUM, Superconductivity in Electric Power, July 1997.Google Scholar
  46. Hans J. Schneider-Muntau, High Magnetic Fields: Applications, Generation. Materials, 1997Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carl H. Rosner
    • 1
  1. 1.Intermagnetics General CorporationLathamUSA

Personalised recommendations