S-Layers Found on Clinical Isolates

  • Kari Lounatmaa
  • Markus Haapasalo
  • Eero Kerosuo
  • Hannele Jousimies-Somer
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 252)


The cell envelopes of bacteria from clinical infections consist of the cytoplasmic membrane and the cell wall. The cytoplasmic membrane is the site of many important biosynthetic activities of the cell, while the cell wall is mainly responsible for the maintenance of the cell shape. In gram-positive bacteria peptidoglygan surrounds the cytoplasmic membrane, in gram-negative cells a thin peptidoglycan layer is further surrounded by the outer membrane. In both gram-positive and gram-negative species amorphous polymeric material (e.g., capsular polysaccharides) may be present on the cell surface.


Cell Surface Hydrophobicity Apical Periodontitis Secretory Otitis Medium Prevotella Species Bacterial Ecology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Absalom, D.R., 1988, The role of bacterial hydrophobicity in infection: bacterial adhesion and phagocytic ingestion, Can. J. Microbiol. 34: 287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Blaser, M.J., Smith, P.F., Repine, J.E., and Joiner, K.A., 1988, Pathogenesis of Campylobacter fetus infections. Failure of encapsulated C. fetus to bind C3b explains serum and phagocytosis resistance, J. Clin. Invest. 81: 1434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dokland, T., Johanssen, B.V., Farrants, G.W., and Olsen, I., 1988, Structure of crystalline proteins from the cell envelope of Wolinella recta, J. Ultrastr. Molec. Struct. Res. 100: 284.Google Scholar
  4. Dokland, T., Olsen, I., Farrants, G., and Johanssen, B.V., 1990, Three-dimentional structure of the surface layer of Wolinella recta, Oral Microbiol. Immunol. 5: 162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Haapasalo, M., 1986, Bacteroides buccae and related taxa in necrotic root canal infections, J. Clin. Microbiol. 24: 940.Google Scholar
  6. Haapasalo, M., Kerosuo, E., and Lounatmaa, K., 1990, The hydrophobicities of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and oral Bacteroides and Porphyromonas spp., Wolinella recta and Eubacterium yurii with special reference to bacterial surface structures, Scand. J. Dent. Res. 98: 472.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Haapasalo, M., Lounatmaa, K., Ranta, H., Shah, H., and Ranta, K., 1985, Ultrastructure of Bacteroides capillus, B. buccae, B. pentosaceus, B. oris, B. oralis, B. veroralis, and pentose sugar-fermenting Bacteroides sp. from humans with periapical osteitis: occurence of external proteinaceus cell wall layer, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 35: 65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Haapasalo M., Ranta H., Ranta K., and Shah H., 1986, Black-pigmented Bacteroides spp. in human apical periodontitis. Infect Immun 53: 149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Kerosuo, E., 1988, Ultrastructure of the cell envelope of Bacteroides forsythus strain ATCC43037r, Oral Microbiol. Immunol. 3: 134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kerosuo, E., Haapasalo, M., Ranta, H., and Lounatmaa, K., 1987, Hexagonal periodicity in the outer membrane of Bacteroides buccae. J. Gen. Microbiol. 133: 2217.Google Scholar
  11. Kerosuo, E., Haapasalo, M., and Lounatmaa, K., 1989, Ultrastructural relationship of cell envelope layers in Wolinella recta, Scand. J. Dent. Res. 97: 54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Kerosuo, E., Haapasalo, M., Alli, K., and Lounatmaa, K., 1990, Ingestion of Bacteroides buccae, B. oris, Porphyromonas gingival is, and Fusobacterium nucleatum by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes in vitro, Oral Microbiol. Immunol. 5: 202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kerosuo, E., Haapasalo, M., Lounatmaa, K., and Ranta, H., 1988a, Ultrastructural comparison of Bacteroides heparinolyticus and B. buccae, in: “Crystalline bacterial cell surface layers,” U.B. Sleytr, P. Messner, D. Pum, M. Sara, eds., Springer Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  14. Kerosuo. E., Haapasalo, M., Lounatmaa, K., Ranta, H., and Ranta, K., 1988b, Ultrastructure of a novel anaerobic Gram-positive nonsporing rod from dental root canal, Scand. J. Dent. Res. 96: 50.Google Scholar
  15. Kornman, K.S., and Holt, S.C., 1981, Physiological and ultrastructural characterization of a new Bacteroides species (Bacteroides capillus) isolated from severe localized periodontitis, J. Periodont. Res. 16: 542.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lounatmaa, K., 1985, Electron microscopic methods for the study of bacterial surface structures, in: “Enterobacterial surface antigens: methods for molecular characterization,” T.K. Korhonen, E.A. Dawes, P.H. Mäkelä, eds., Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  17. Lounatmaa, K., Jousimies-Somer, H., Grenman R., and Rintala, A., 1988, Crystalline surface layers in anaerobic bacteria isolated from a patient with secretory otitis media and a draining ear, in: “Crystalline bacterial cell surface layers,” U.B. Sleytr, P. Messner, D. Pum, M. Sara, eds., Springer Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  18. Margaret, B.S., Heath, J.R., and Krywolap, G.N., 1990, Pathogenic potential of Eubacterium yurii subspecies, J. Med. Microbiol. 31: 103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Messner, P., and Buckel, W., 1988, The surface layer of Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus, System. App. Microbiol. 10: 226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Okuda, K., Kato, T., Shiozu, J., Takazoe, I., and Nakamura, T., 1985, Bacteroides heparinolyticus sp. nov. isolated from humans with periodontitis, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 35: 438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ranta, H., Lounatmaa, K., Haapasalo, M., and Ranta, K., 1983, Isolation and ultrastructure of Bacteroides sp. with external cell wall layer (S-layer) in periapical osteitis. Scand. J. Dent. Res. 91: 458.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Ranta, H., Haapasalo, M., Ranta, K., Kontiainen, S., Kerosuo, E., Valtonen, V., Suuronen, R., and Hovi, T., 1988, Bacteriology of odontogenic apical periodontitis and effect of penicillin treatment. Scand. J. Infect. Dir., 20: 187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sjögren, A., Hovmöller, S., Farrants, G., Ranta, H., Haapasalo, M., Ranta, K., and Lounatmaa, K., 1985, Structures of two different surface layers found in six Bacteroides strains. J. Bacteriol. 164: 1278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Sjögren, A., Wang, D.N., Hovmöller, S., Haapasalo, M., Ranta, H., Kerosuo, E., Jousimies-Somer, H., and Lounatmaa, K., 1988, The three-dimensional structures of S-layers of two novel Eubacterium species isolated from inflammatory human processes, Molecul. Microbiol. 2: 81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kari Lounatmaa
    • 1
  • Markus Haapasalo
    • 2
  • Eero Kerosuo
    • 2
  • Hannele Jousimies-Somer
    • 3
  1. 1.Academy of Finland, and Department of Electron MicroscopyUniversity of HelsinkiFinland
  2. 2.Department of CariologyUniversity of HelsinkiFinland
  3. 3.National Public Health InstituteHelsinkiFinland

Personalised recommendations