S-Layers as Immobilization and Affinity Matrices
The procedures for immobilizing macromolecules can be classified into crosslinking, entrapping and carrier-binding and these can be subdivided into physical adsorption, ionic, and covalent binding (Mosbach 1987, 1988). Among the various methods, covalent binding is most frequently applied since the forces between the macromolecules and the carrier are strong and leakage of the immobilized molecules from the support matrix should be negligible under disrupting conditions, such as high salt concentration and low or high pH. The carriers usually used for immobilization are particles made of different polymers, such as agarose or polyacrylamide. Despite their different chemical composition, all carriers are heteroporous meshworks with a random distribution of the polymer chains and a random orientation of the functional groups. Due to the presence of differently sized pores, immobilization of macromolecules does not only occur on the surface of the gel particles but also in the interior of the polymer network. Although higher binding capacities can be achieved if immobilization is possible in the interior of the gels, it can be of disadvantage in that the diffusion of subsequently applied reaction partners may be a limiting factor for the speed of reaction.
KeywordsCarbohydrate Chain Morphological Unit Bacillus Coagulans Immobilization Matrix Cell Wall Fragment
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