Alternative Microanalytical Techniques
The extraordinary analytical capabilities of combined scanning electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis (SEM/XM) are not without limitations. Indeed, there exist significant shortcomings of the technique which limit its application to many important problems. Fortunately, a number of alternative microanalysis techniques have been developed, in some cases based on totally different excitation radiations and analytical signals. These alternative microanalysis techniques have often undergone extensive development and possess a large body of literature. A detailed treatment of these techniques is beyond the scope of this chapter. Rather, the general principles of several of the major alternative techniques will be illustrated to show how these techniques can be utilized to augment the information available from SEM/XM. Specifically, the following special forms of microanalysis will be considered: high-spatial-resolution microanalysis, surface microanalysis, trace microanalysis, and molecular microanalysis. To appreciate how these alternative microanalysis techniques can fit into an analytical strategy, the strengths and weaknesses of SEM/XM will be reviewed.
KeywordsAuger Electron Analytical Electron Micro Electron Energy Loss Spectrometry Relative Sensitivity Factor Shell Ionization
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.