SEM Microcharacterization of Semiconductors
The electronics industry is now one of the principal users of the scanning electron microscope, with as many as half of all new SEMs being bought, directly or indirectly, for semiconductor applications. There are several reasons for this popularity. First, the SEM provides a variety of contrast modes which are of great value in qualitatively and quantitatively assessing the properties of semiconductor materials. Second, the SEM offers modes which allow the operation of devices such as switches, transistors, and even complete integrated circuits, to be observed under conditions which approximate those of normal use. As the size of devices has been reduced to the micrometer scale, and as devices themselves become more complex, the fact that the SEM can combine imaging and chemical microanalysis with such facilities as the ability to identify electrically active defects, or measure voltages, makes it in many cases the most versatile tool for characterization, diagnosis, and failure analysis. The major techniques in current use for semiconductor studies are discused below, but other modes of operation including electron channeling and x-ray microanalysis are also of value and the chapters dealing with these topics should be consulted as well.
KeywordsBeam Energy Schottky Barrier Minority Carrier Thermal Wave Interaction Volume
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