Variability in Human Cardiovascular Pharmacodynamics
An often-stated comment from researchers in aging is that the consistent hallmark of increasing age is increasing variability for measured parameters within a population. The various components of cardiovascular function in the aging human generally fit this maxim. Here an attempt will be made to characterize aspects of pharmacodynamic variability in aging and explore some of the various components of physiological variability that contribute to measurable pharmacodynamic endpoints. The approach will stress that useful cardiovascular pharmacodynamic endpoints (e. g., blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, etc.) are complex parameters derived from interacting components. Blood pressure, for example, characterized in terms of hemodynamics is a function of cardiac output, vascular compliance, and vascular resistance. Cardiac output is comprised of heart rate and contractility, while contractility may be usefully separated into systolic and diastolic components.
KeywordsAtrial Natriuretic Peptide Left Ventricular Filling Diastolic Filling Atrial Natriuretic Factor Vascular Compliance
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.R. J. Rodeheffer, G. Gerstenblith, L. C. Becker, J. L. Fleg, M. L. Weisfeldt, and E. G. Lakatta. Exercise cardiac output is maintained with advancing age in healthy human subjects: cardiac dilatation and increased stroke volume compensate for diminished heart rate. Circulation 69:203–213 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 2.R. O. Bonow, S. L. Bacharach, M. V. Green, K. M. Kent, D. R. Rosing, L. C. Lipson, M. B. Leon, and S. E. Epstein. Impaired left ventricular diastolic filling in patients with coronary artery disease: assessment with radionuclide angiography. Circulation 64:315–323 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar