Surface Dependent Emission of Low Energy Electrons (Exoemission) from Apatite Samples

  • J. E. Davies


Exoemission (EE) phenomena, grouped collectively under the title “Kramer effect” include non-isothermally stimulated relaxation of irradiation-induced perturbations of crystalline lattices known as Thermally Stimulated Exoemission (TSEE). Liberated electrons may originate from metastable excited states via the conduction band (volume effect) or from phase changes of surface adsorption species (surface effect). However, in all cases, changes in the surface state may modify the emission. This paper presents TSEE observed in apatites using an open-window Geiger counter. In a “model” series, emission maxima common to FAp’s of synthetic mineral and biological origins demonstrate surface and volume dependent emission within the series. Similar emission characteristics observed from biological apatites of differing origins indicates that the defects responsible are intrinsic to the apatite lattice and at least partially independent of chemical substitutions. Since electron availability is of fundamental importance to biological hard tissue reactivity, the potential of exoemission as an adjunct to other surface analysis techniques is discussed.


Central Processing Unit Glow Curve Thermal Pretreatment OSEE Spectrum Biological Apatite 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. E. Davies
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnatomyUniversity of BirminghamBirminghamUK

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