Maternal and Infancy Addiction: Adolescent Mothers and Their Offspring

  • Yifrah Kaminer
Part of the Critical Issues in Psychiatry book series (CIPS)


Adolescent psychoactive substance use disorders (APSUDs) and unplanned pregnancy are two of the most prevalent public health problems in the United States. Pregnancy and parenting during adolescence place adolescent females and their infants at increased risk for present and future medical, economic, and psychosocial problems. Concurrent PSUD adds to the severity of these problems (Zuckerman, Amaro, & Beardslee, 1987). This chapter reviews and discusses APSUDs in adolescent females who are pregnant or mothers, or both, and their offspring. It provides an update of the relatively limited information available on the prevalence, patterns, and outcomes of APSUDs among pregnant adolescents and adolescent mothers with their infants.


Maternal Depression Psychoactive Substance Pregnant Female Methadone Maintenance Fetal Alcohol Syndrome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abel, E. L., & Sokol, R. J. (1987). Incidence of fetal alcohol syndrome and economic impact of FAS-related anomalies. Alcohol and Drug Dependence, 19, 51–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amaro, H., & Zuckerman, B. (1990). Psychoactive substance use and adolescent pregnancy: Compounded risk among inner city adolescent mothers. In M. E. Colten & S. Gore (Eds.), Adolescent Stress: Causes and Consequences (pp. 223–236). New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  4. Beck, A. (1976). Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  5. Blum, R. W. (1991). Global trends in adolescent health. Journal of the American Medical Association, 265, 2711–2719.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burns, K. I., Melamed, J., Burns, W., Chasnoff, I., & Hatcher, R. (1985). Chemical dependence and clinical depression in pregnancy. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 41, 851–854.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chan, L. S., Wingert, W. A., & Wachsman, L. (1986). Differences between dropouts and active participants in a pediatric clinic for substance abuse mothers. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 12, 89–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chasnoff, I.J. (1988). Drug use in pregnancy: Parameters of risk. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 35, 1403–1412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Chasnoff, I. J. (1989). Drug use and women: Establishing a standard of care. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 68, 208–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chasnoff, I. J., Griffith, D. R., Freier, C., & James, M. (1992). Cocaine/polydrug use in pregnancy: Two-year follow-up. Pediatrics, 89, 284–289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Condon, J. T. (1986). The spectrum of fetal abuse in pregnant women. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 174, 509–516.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Davidson-Ward, S. L., Schuetz, S., Krishna, V., Bean, X., Wingert, W., Wachsman, L., & Keens, T. G. (1986). Abnormal sleeping ventilatory pattern in infants of substance-abusing mothers. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 140, 1015–1020.Google Scholar
  13. Duffy, J., & Coates, T J. (1989). Reducing smoking among pregnant adolescents. Adolescence, 93, 29–37.Google Scholar
  14. Farrell, A. D., Danish, S. J., & Howard, C. W. (1992). Relationship between drug use and other problem behaviors in urban adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychiatry, 60, 705–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Finnegan, L. P. (1986). Neonatal abstinence syndrome: Assessment and pharmacotherapy. In F. F. Rubaltelli & B. Granati (Eds.), Neonatal Therapy: An Update (pp. 182–204). New York: Elsevier Science Publishers.Google Scholar
  16. Finnegan, L. P. (1991). Perinatal substance abuse: Comments and perspectives. Seminars in Perinatology, 15, 331–339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Frank, D. A., Bauchner, H., Zuckerman, B. S., & Fried, L. (1992). Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 92, 215–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Fried, P. A., & Watkinson, B. (1990). 36- and 48-month neurobehavioral follow-up of children prenatally exposed to marijuana, cigarettes, and alcohol. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 11, 49–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gilchrist, L. D., Gillmore, M. R., & Lohr, M. J. (1990). Drug use among pregnant adolescents. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 58, 402–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gomby, D. S., & Shiono, P. H. (1991). Estimating the number of substance-exposed infants: The future of children. Center for the Future of Children, 1, 17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hagan, T. A. (1987). A Retrospective Search for the Etiology of Drug Abuse: A Background Comparison of a Drug-Addicted Population of Women and a Control Group of Non-Addicted Women. NI DA Research Monograph Series of Health and Human Services. Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  22. Hans, S. L. (1989). Developmental consequences of prenatal exposure to methadone. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 68, 195–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hayes, C. D. (1987). Risking the Future: Adolescent Sexuality, Pregnancy and Childbearing, Vol 1. Washington DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  24. Jessor, R., & Jessor, S. L. (1977). Problem Behavior and Psychosocial Development: A Longitudinal Study of Youth. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  25. Jones, K. L., Smith, D. W, Ulleland, C. N., & Streissguth, A. P. (1973). Pattern of malformation in offspring of chronic alcoholic mothers. Lancet, 1, 1267–1271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kaminer, Y, & Feingold, M. (1991). Abuse of illegal psychoactive substances in pregnancy. Harefuah, 121, 524–526.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Kokotailo, P. K., Adger, H., Duggan, A. K., Repke, J., & Joffe, A. (1992). Cigarette, alcohol, and other drug use by school-age pregnant adolescents: Prevalence, detection, and associated risk factors. Pediatrics, 90, 328–334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Kuzma, J., & Sokol, R. (1982). Maternal drinking behavior and decreased intrauterine growth. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 6, 396–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kwok, P., Correy, J. F., Newman, N. M., & Curran, J. T. (1983). Smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Medical Journal of Australia, 1, 220–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Little, R., & Streissguth, A., (1981). Effects of alcohol on the fetus: Impact and prevention. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 125, 159–164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Marques, P. R., & McKnight, A. J. (1991). Drug abuse risk among pregnant adolescents attending public health clinics. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 17, 399–414.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Miller, W. H., & Hyatt, M. C. (1992). Perinatal substance abuse. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 18, 247–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Moss, N., & Hensleigh, P. A. (1988). Substance use by Hispanic and white non-Hispanic pregnant adolescents: A preliminary survey. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 17, 531–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Newcomb, M. D., & Bender, P. M. (1988). Consequences of Adolescent Drug Use: Impact on the Lives of Young Adults. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  35. Rosett, H. L., & Weiner, L. (1985). Alcohol and pregnancy: A clinical perspective. Annual Review of Medicine, 36, 73–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Serdula, M., Williamson, D. F., Kendrick, J. S., Anda, R. F., & Byers, T. (1991). Trends in alcohol consumption by pregnant women. Journal of the American Medical Association, 265, 876–879.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Silver, H., Wapner, R., Loriz-Vega, M., & Finnegan, L. P. (1987). Addiction in pregnancy: High risk intrapartum management and outcome. Journal of Perinatology, 3, 178–184.Google Scholar
  38. Smith, S., & Hanson, R. (1974). 134 Battered children: A medical and psychological study. British Medical Journal, 3, 666–670.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Streissguth, A. P., Darby, B. L., Barr, H. M., & Smith, J. R. (1983). Comparison of drinking and smoking patterns during pregnancy over a six-year interval. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 145, 716–724.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Streissguth, A. P., Sampson, P. D., Barr, H. M. (1989). IQ at age 4 in relation to maternal alcohol use and smoking during pregnancy. Developmental Psychology, 25, 3–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Teri, L. (1982). The use of the Beck Depression Inventory with adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 10, 277–284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Weitzman, M., Gortmaker, S., & Sobol, A. (1992). Maternal smoking and behavior problems in children. Pediatrics, 90, 342–349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Yamaguchi, K., & Kandel, D. (1987). Drug use and other determinants of premarital pregnancy and its outcomes: A dynamic analysis of competing life events. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 49, 257–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zabin, L. S. (1984). The association between smoking and sexual behavior among teens in U.S. contraceptive clinics. American Journal of Public Health, 74, 261–263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zuckerman, B. S., Amaro, M., & Beardslee, W. R. (1987). Mental health of adolescent mothers: The implications of depression and drug use. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 8, 111 – 116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zuckerman, B. S., & Beardslee, W. R. (1987). Maternal depression: A concern for pediatricians. Pediatrics, 79, 110–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Zuckerman, B. S., & Bresnahan, K. (1991). Developmental and behavioral consequences of prenatal drug and alcohol exposure. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 38, 1387–1406.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yifrah Kaminer
    • 1
  1. 1.Alcohol Research CenterThe University of Connecticut Health CenterFarmingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations