Alleviating Learned Helplessness in a Wilderness Setting: An Application of Attribution Theory to Outward Bound

  • Richard S. Newman


A therapeutic intervention for the alleviation of learned helplessness is discussed in terms of theories of causal attributions, self-concept development, and environmental psychology. Outward Bound, a wilderness training program, is presented as an example of this intervention.


Causal Attribution Achievement Motivation Learned Helplessness Attribution Theory External Attribution 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard S. Newman
    • 1
  1. 1.The University of MichiganUSA

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