Population policies are explicit statements about goals regarding population size, structure, and change, and the specification of measures and programs to attain the goals. Most countries with such policies today developed them during the second half of the 20th century. But if the concept is broadened to include all governmental actions with demographic impacts, then population policies have a longer history. Examples of actions prompted by non-demographic reasons, but nonetheless with demographic consequences, include planned economic development, land reform legislation, and programs emphasizing equal employment and educational opportunities that enhance the standing of disadvantaged sections of a population beyond the level attainable by them otherwise. There is some evidence that reduction in inequalities, enhancement of educational attainment, and the like have significant impacts on fertility, mortality, and migration rates.
KeywordsFamily Planning Fertility Decline Family Planning Program Fertility Transition Population Policy
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