Probing the Atom
It has been hypothesized for millennia that all matter is made of tiny, indivisible, smallest bits of matter called atoms. Great progress had been made during the nineteenth century in attributing the thermodynamic laws and some of the properties of matter, especially gases, to the kinetic-molecular theory (Chapter 7). In addition, it was known for centuries that there are different types of so-called fundamental “elements” in nature—gold, silver, copper, sodium, etc. There are the smallest units into which substances can be divided by chemical means. Eventually it was found useful to give the elements special symbols, for example, “C” for carbon, “O” for oxygen, “H” for hydrogen, and so on.
KeywordsPeriodic Table Electric Force Threshold Frequency Photoelectric Effect Small Charge
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