Hydrogen ion concentration plays a major role in wine making. Its involvements range from physical-chemical and biological concerns to the sensory attributes and potentially, defects. Hydrogen ion activity usually is measured in terms of the logarithmic concentration term, pH. Initially, the winemaker is concerned with fruit and must pH. The pH values for white wines are often 3.4 or less, whereas higher values usually are observed for red wines, largely because of contact of juice and skins before and during fermentation.
KeywordsMalic Acid Tartaric Acid Titratable Acidity Fumaric Acid Grape Juice
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