Intracerebral pH Regulation and Ammonia Detoxification

  • N. M. Van Gelder
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 153)


Two regulatory cycles are known which assure the hydrogen and ammonia ion balance in the CNS. The CO2/bicarbonate system opposes excessive acidoses and may provide an important energy source (H+) for glia. The glutamate/glutamine system opposes excessive alkalosis and is important in balancing the excitation inhibition modulation of the CNS (glutamate — GABA system). Both systems are critically dependent on two glial enzymes: carbonic anhydrase and glutamine synthetase, respectively. The principal substrates for these enzymes- CO2, NH3 and glutamate- are derived from neurons and become increasingly available with greater neuronal activity.


Glutamic Acid Carbonic Anhydrase Satellite Cell Glutamine Synthetase Glutamine Synthetase Activity 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. M. Van Gelder
    • 1
  1. 1.Département de physiologieCentre de recherche en sciences neurologiquesSuccursale A MontréalCanada

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