Quantitative Real-Time PCR for Detection of Parvovirus B19 DNA in Blood Plasma for Plasma Screening
Human Parvovirus B 19 (PV-B 19) is a 18–26 nm small, non-enveloped, single stranded DNA virus belonging to the family Parvoviridae. The virus has a tropism for red blood cell progenitors. Most of the clinical manifestations due to viral infection are related to impairment of the functions of red blood cell progenitors (i.e. transient aplastic crisis, pure red cell aplasia) or to circulating immune complexes resulting from infection (Erythema infectiosum, rash, arthropathy). PV-B 19 is normally transmitted via the respiratory route. PV-B 19 is commonly found in blood donors. The prevalence of high viremic PV-B 19 infection among blood donors is estimated between 1:20,000 to 1:50,000 . However, during micro epidemic periods the prevalence can be as high as 1:260 . The high viremic period after infection is usually short and very intense with PV-B 19 loads up to 1014 copies /ml in plasma. After this initial burst of virus, infected individuals stay low viremic for a prolonged period up to several months with load <104 copies/ml in plasma. Although normally transmitted via the respiratory route, parental transmission of PV-B 19 can occur via the administration of blood components and blood derivatives. Transmission via blood components originating from a single donor occurs only rarely. The reported cases include a recipient of an infected red cell unit with thalassemia  and recipients who underwent bone marrow  or liver transplantation. These rare observations are in contrast with many reports on the transmission of PV-B 19 via blood derivatives such as clotting factor concentrates, albumin and IVIG .
KeywordsTest Pool Respiratory Route Acceptor Fluorophore Blood Derivative Erythema Infectiosum
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