Separation of Copper and Nickel by Low Temperature Processes

  • Gary Klinkhammer
Part of the NATO Conference Series book series (NATOCS, volume 9)


When copper and nickel enter estuaries they exhibit distinct geochemical behaviours. Copper tends to become associated with solids while nickel remains dissolved. Nickel is thus free to enter the oceans while copper accumulates in estuarine or near-shore sediments. Early diagenesis in pelagic sediments acts to reverse these estuarine effects. Copper scavenged from sea water is remobilized at the sea-sediment boundary and ninety percent of this copper is recycled to sea water. On the other hand, twenty-five per cent of all the nickel deposited in pelagic sediments is associated with authigenic manganese oxides. Since most pelagic sediments are oxidative near the interface, this gleaned nickel is effectively removed from sea water. These results demonstrate that copper and nickel are fractionated continuously from initial weathering to final burial in sediments.


Pore Water Manganese Oxide Early Diagenesis Manganese Nodule Pelagic Sediment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Mantoura, R.F.C., A. Dickson and J.P. Riley, 1978: The complexation of metals with humic materials in natural waters. Est. Coast. Mar. Sci. 6, 387–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Takematsu, N., 1979: Incorporation of minor transition metals into marine manganese nodules. J. Oceanogr. Soc. Jpn. 35, 191–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sclater, F.R., E. Boyle and J.M. Edmond, 1976: On the marine geochemistry of nickel. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 31, 119–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Boyle, E.A., F.R. Sclater and J.M. Edmond, 1977: The distribution of dissolved copper in the Pacific. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 37, 38–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bruland, K.W., 1980: Oceanographic distributions of cadmium, zinc, nickel, and copper in the North Pacific. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 47, 176–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brewer, P.G. and W.M. Hao 1979: Oceanic elemental scavenging. In: “Chemical Modeling in Aqueous Systems”, E.A. Jenne, ed., American Chemical Society, 261–274.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Klinkhammer, G., 1977: “The Distribution and Partitioning of Some Trace Metals in the Hudson River Estuary”. Msts. Thesis, University of Rhode Island. 125 pp.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Klinkhammer, G., 1980: Determination of manganese in seawater by flameless atomic absorption spectrometry after pre-concentration with 8-hydroxyquinoline in chloroform. Anal. Chem. 52, 117–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Klinkhammer, G., 1980: Early diagenesis in sediments from the eastern equatorial Pacific, II. Pore water metal results. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 49, 81–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mangum, B.J. and J.M. Edmond, 1979: Trace metal profiles from MANOP sites M, H, C, and S. EOS, 60, 858.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Simpson, H.J., D.E. Hammond, B.L. Deck and S.C. Williams, 1975: Nutrient budgets in the Hudson River Estuary. In: “Marine Chemistry in the Coastal Environment”, T.M. Church, ed., American Chemical Society Symposium Series, No. 18, 616–635.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Interstate Sanitation Commission, 1972: Report of the ISC of New York, New Jersey and Connecticut.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Klein, L.A., M. Long, N. Nash and S.L. Kinschner, 1974: Sources of metals in New York City wastewater. Report of the New York Water Pollution Control Association.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Klinkhammer, G.P. and M.L. Bender, 1981: Trace metal distributions in the Hudson River estuary. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 12, 629–643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Turekian, K.K. and K.H. Wedepohl, 1981: Distribution of the elements in some major units of the earth’s crust. Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., 72, 175–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Morel, M.M., J.C. Westall, C.R. O’Mella and J.J. Morgan, 1975: Fate of trace metals in Los Angeles County waste water discharge. Environ. Sci. Tech. 9, 756–761.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Martin, J-M. and M. Meybeck, 1979: Elemental mass-balance of material carried by major world rivers. Mar. Chem. 7, 173–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Froelich, P.N., G.P. Klinkhammer, M.L. Bender, N.A. Luedtke, G.R. Heath, D. Cullen, P. Dauphin, D. Hammond, B. Hartman and V. Maynard, 1979: Early oxidation of organic matter in pelagic sediments of the eastern equatorial Atlantic: suboxic diagenesis. Geochim. Cosmochim, Acta. 43, 1075–1090.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Li, Y-H. and S. Gregory, 1974: Diffusion of ions in sea water and in deep-sea sediments. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 38, 703–714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wollast, R. and R.M. Garrels, 1971: Diffusion coefficient of silica in seawater. Nature Phys. Sci. 229, 94.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    van Andel, T.H., G.R. Heath and T.C. Moore, Jr., 1975: Cenozoic History and Paleo-oceanography of the Central Equatorial Pacific Ocean. Geol. Soc. American Mem. 143, 134pp.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bender, M.L., G.P. Klinkhammer and D.W. Spencer, 1977: Manganese in seawater and the marine manganese balance. Deep-Sea Res. 24, 799–812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sundby, B., N. Silverberg and R. Chesselet, 1981: Pathways to manganese in an open estuarine system. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 45, 293–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bostrom, K., T. Kraemer and S. Gartner, 1973: Provenance and accumulation rates of opaline silica, Al, Ti, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni and Co in Pacific pelagic sediments. Chem. Geol. 11, 123–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Callender, E. and C.J. Bowser, 1980: Manganese and copper geochemistry of interstitial fluids from manganese nodule-rich pelagic sediments of the northeastern equatorial Pacific Ocean. Amer. J. Sci. 280, 1063–1096.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gary Klinkhammer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Earth SciencesThe University of LeedsLeedsEngland

Personalised recommendations