According to the theoretical formulations by Lazarus (1966), as further developed by Frankenhaeuser (1986), Levi (1972), Kagan and Levi (1974), McGrath (1970), Magnusson and Öhman (1987), and several others, psychological stress is considered as an interactional process, where situational demands are weighed against each individual’s resources to meet these demands. The cognitive evaluation of this balance is the major determinant of the stress response, as reflected in the activation of specific biological systems. As a consequence of this cognitive evaluation, considerable interindividual differences exist in response to a specific stressful situation. The individual’s ability, personality characteristics, earlier experiences, and genetic dispositions may further contribute to the idiosyncrasy of the stress responses.


Coronary Heart Disease Role Conflict Psychosomatic Medicine Work Overload Total Workload 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alfredsson, L., Spetz C-L., and Theorell, T. (1985). Type of occupation and near-future hospitalization for myocardial infarction and some other diagnoses. International Journal of Epidemiology, 14, 378–388.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aronsson, G., Örelius, M., and Aborg, C. (1988). Datoriseringens vinnare och förlorare [The winners and losers of computerization]. Statshälsan.Google Scholar
  3. Axelrod, J., and Reisine, T. D. (1984). Stress hormones: Their interaction and regulation Science, 224, 452–459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barefoot, J. C., Dahlstrom, W. G., and Williams, Jr, R B (1983). Hostility, CHD incidence, and total mortality: A 24-year follow-up study of 255 physicians. Psychomatic Medicine, 45, 59–64.Google Scholar
  5. Battié, M. C. (1989). The reliability of physical factors as predictors of the occurrence of back pain reports. A prospective study within industry. Doctoral Dissertation, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg.Google Scholar
  6. Bigos, S., Battié, M., Spengler, D., Fisher, L., Fordyce, W., Hansson, T., Nachemson, A., and Wortley, M. (1991). Perspective studies of work perception and psychosocial factors affect. The report of back injury. Spine, 16:1, 1–6.Google Scholar
  7. Cannon, W. B. (1914). The emergency function of the adrenal medulla in pain and the major emotions. American Journal of Physiology, 33, 356–372.Google Scholar
  8. Chesney, M. A., Sevelius, G., Black, G. W., Ward, M., Swan, G. E., and Rosenman, R. H. (1981). Work environment, Type A behavior, and coronary heart disease risk factors. Journal of Occupational Medicine, 23, 551–555.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Contrada, R. J., and Krantz, D. S. (1988). Stress, reactivity, and Type A behavict: Current status and future directions. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 10, 64–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dembroski, T. M., MacDougall, J. M., Williams, R. B., Haney, T. L., and Blumenthal, J. A. (1985). Components of Type A behavior, hostility and anger in relationship to angiographic findings. Psychosomatic Medicine, 47, 219–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Diamond, E. L. (1982). The role of anger and hostility in essential hypertension and coronary heart disease. Psychological Bulletin, 91, 410–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dohrenwend, B. S. (1973). Life events as stressors: A methodological inquiry. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 14, 167–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dohrenwend, B. S., and Dohrenwend, B. P. (Eds.). (1974). Stressful life events: Their nature and effects. New York, London, Sydney, Toronto: Wiley.Google Scholar
  14. Dunne, E. Q., and Mullins, P. A. (1989). Sex differences in psychological and psychophysiological arousal patterns: A study of `working couples.’ Work and Stress, 3, 261–268.Google Scholar
  15. Frankenhaeuser, M. (1971). Behavior and circulating catecholamines. Brain Research, 31, 241–262.Google Scholar
  16. Frankenhaeuser, M. (1979). Psychoneuroendocrine approaches to the study of emotion as related to stress and coping. In H. E. Howe and R. A. Dienstbier (Eds.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation (pp. 123–161). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  17. Frankenhaeuser, M. (1981). Coping with job stress-a psychobiological approach. In B. Gardell and G. Johansson (Eds.), Working life. A Social Science Contribution to Work Reform (pp. 213233 ). London: Wiley.Google Scholar
  18. Frankenhaeuser, M. (1983). The sympathetic-adrenal and pituitary-adrenal response to challenge: Comparison between the sexes. In T. M. Dembroski, T. H. Schmidt, and G. Blumchen (Eds.), Biobehavioral Bases of Coronary Heart Disease (pp. 91–105 ). Basel, New York: Karger.Google Scholar
  19. Frankenhaeuser, M. (1985). To err is human: Psychological and biological aspects of human functioning. In Nuclear war by mistake. Inevitable or preventable? Distributed by physicians for Prevention of Nuclear War, Stockholm.Google Scholar
  20. Frankenhaeuser, M. (1986). A psychobiological framework for research on human stress and coping.Google Scholar
  21. In M. H. Appley and R. Trumbull (Eds.), Dynamics of stress (pp. 101–116). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  22. Frankenhaeuser, M. (1991). The psychophysiology of sex differences as related to occupational status. In M. Frankenhaeuser, U. Lundberg, and M. Chesney (Eds.), Women, Work and Health. Stress and Opportunities (pp. 39–64 ). New York and London: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Frankenhaeuser, M., and Lundberg, U. (1985). Sympathetic-adrenal and pituitary-adrenal response to challenge. In P. Pichot, P. Berner, R. Wolf, and K. Thau (Eds.), Psychiatry (Vol. 2; pp. 699704 ). London: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  24. Frankenhaeuser, M., Lundberg, U., and Forsman, L. (1980a). Note on arousing Type-A persons by depriving them of work. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 24, 45–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Frankenhaeuser, M., Lundberg, U., and Forsman, L. (1980b). Dissociation between sympathetic-adrenal and pituitary-adrenal responses to an achievement situation characterized by high controllability: Comparison between Type A and Type B males and females. Biological Psychology, 10, 79–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Frankenhaeuser, M., Lundberg, U., Fredrikson, M., Melin, B., Tuomisto, M., Myrsten, A-L., Hedman, M., Bergman-Losman, B., and Wallin, L. (1989). Stress on and off the job as related to sex and occupational status in white-collar workers. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10, 321–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Frankenhaeuser, M., Lundberg, U., and Chesney, M. (Eds.). (1991). Women, work and health. Stress and opportunities. New York and London: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  28. Frankenhaeuser, M., Lundberg, U., and Mârdberg, B. (1990). The total workload of men and women as related to occupational level and number and age of children. (Report No. 726 ). Stockholm University: Department of Psychology.Google Scholar
  29. Friedman, M. (1969). Pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. London: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  30. Friedman, M., and Rosenman, R. H. (1974). Type A Behavior and Your Heart. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
  31. Friedman, M., Thoresen, C. E., Gill, J. J., Powell, L. H., Ulmer, D., Thompson, L., Price, V. A., Rabin, D. D., Breall, W. S., Dixon, T., Levy, R., and Bourg, E. (1984). Alteration of Type A behavior and reduction in cardiac recurrences in postmyocardial infarction patients. American Heart Journal, 108, 237–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Glass, D. C. (1977). Behavior patterns, stress, and coronary disease. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  33. Glass, D. C., and Carver, C. S. (1980). Helplessness and the coronary-prone personality. In J. Garber and M. E. P. Seligman (Eds.), Human Helplessness: Theory and Applications (pp. 223–243 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  34. Glass, D. C., and Contrada, R. J. (1983). Type A behavior and catecholamines: A critical review. In C. R. Lake and M. Ziegler (Eds.), Norepinephrine: Clinical Aspects (pp. 346–367). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  35. Gyntelberg, F. (1974). One year incidence of low back pain among male residents of Copenhagen aged 40–59. Danish Medical Bulletin, 21, 30–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Hall, E. M. (1990). Women’s work: An inquiry into the health effects of invisible and visible labor. Doctoral dissertation, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm. Akademitryck.Google Scholar
  37. Haynes, S. G. (1991). The effect of job demands, job control, and new technologies on the health of employed women: A review. In M. Frankenhaeuser, U. Lundberg, and M. Chesney (Eds.), Women, work and health. Stress and opportunities (pp. 157–169 ). New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Haynes, S. G., Feinleib, M., Levine, S., Scotch, N., and Kannel, W. B. (1978). The relationship of psychosocial factors to coronary heart disease in the Framingham study: II. Prevalence of coronary heart disease. American Journal of Epidemiology, 107, 384 492.Google Scholar
  39. Henry, J. P. (1976). Understanding the early pathophysiology of essential hypertention. Geriatrics, 31, 59–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Henry, J. P., and Stephens, P. M. (1977). Stress, health, and the social environment. A sociobiologic approach to medicine. New York, Heidelberg, and Berlin: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Holmes, T. H., and Rahe, R. H. (1967). The social readjustment rating scale. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 11, 213–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hult, L. (1954). The Munkfors investigation. Acta Orthopedica Scandinavica (Suppl.), 16, 1–76. Kagan, A. R., and Levi, L. (1974). Health and environment-psychosocial stimuli: A review. Social Science and Medicine, 8, 225–241.Google Scholar
  43. Kahn, R. L. (1991). The forms of women’s work. In M. Frankenhaeuser, U. Lundberg, and M. Chesney (Eds.), Women, work and health. Stress and opportunities. (pp. 65–84 ). New York and London, Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Karasek, R. A., Russell, R. S., and Theorell, T. (1982). Physiology of stress and regeneration in job related cardiovascular illness. Journal of Human Stress, 8, 29–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Krantz, D. S., and Manuck, S. B. (1984). Acute psychophysiologic reactivity and risk of cardiovascular disease: A review and methodologic critique. Psychological Bulletin, 96, 435–464.Google Scholar
  46. Krantz, D. S., Lundberg, U., and Frankenhaeuser, M. (1987). Stress and Type A behavior. Interactions between environmental and biological factors. In A. Baum and J. E. Singer (Eds.)Google Scholar
  47. Handbook of pyschology and health (Vol. 5). Stress. (pp. 203–228). Hillsdale, NJ, L. Erlbaum. Lazarus, R. S. (1966). Psychological stress and the coping process. New York: McGraw-Hill. Lazarus, R. S. (1976). Patterns of adjustment. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  48. Levi, L. (1972). Stress and distress in response to psychosocial stimuli. Acta Medica Scandinavica (Suppl.) 528.Google Scholar
  49. Levine, S., Coe, C., and Wiener, S. G. (1989). Psychoneuroendocrinology of stress: A psychobiological perspective. In Psycho endocrinology (pp. 341–377). Orlando: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  50. Levine, S., and Ursin, H. (Eds.). (1980). Coping and health. New York and London: Plenum Press. Lundberg, U. (1984). Human psychobiology in Scandinavia: II. Psychoneuroendocrinology-humanGoogle Scholar
  51. stress and coping processes. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 25,214–226.Google Scholar
  52. Lundberg, U. (1990). Psychobiological stress responses during and after work. Abstracts. 22ndGoogle Scholar
  53. International Congress of Applied Psychology, Kyoto, Japan, July 22–27, 1990.Google Scholar
  54. Lundberg, U., and Forsman, L. (1979). Adrenal-medullary and adrenal-cortical responses to under-Google Scholar
  55. stimulation and overstimulation: Comparison between Type A and Type B persons. Biological Google Scholar
  56. Psychology, 9,79–89.Google Scholar
  57. Lundberg, U., Granqvist, M., Hansson, T., Magnusson, M., and Wallin, L. (1989). Psychological and physiological stress responses during repetitive work at an assembly line. Work and Stress, 3, 143–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lundberg, U., Melin, B., Evans, G. W., and Holmberg, L. (1993). Physiological deactivation after two contrasting tasks at a video display terminal: Learning versus repetitive data entry. Ergonomics, 36, 601–611.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lundberg, U., and Palm, K. (1989). Workload and catecholamine excretion in parents of preschool children. Work and Stress, 3, 255–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Magnusson, D., and Öhman, A. (1987). Psychopathology. An interactional perspective. Orlando: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  61. Magnusson, M., Granqvist, M., Jonson, R., Lindell, V., Lundberg, U., Wallin, L., and Hansson, T. (1990). The loads on the lumbar spine during work at an assembly line. The risks for fatigue injuries of vertebral bodies. Spine, 15, 774–779.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Magora, A. (1974). Investigation of the relation between low back pain and occupation. VI. Medical histories and symptoms. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation, 6, 81–88.Google Scholar
  63. Mârdberg, B., Lundberg, U., and Frankenhaeuser, M. (1991). The total workload of parents employed in white-collar jobs: Construction of a questionnaire and a scoring system. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 32, 233–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mason, J. W. (1968a). A review of psychoendocrine research on the pituitary-adrenal cortical system. Psychosomatic Medicine, 30, 576–597.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Mason, J. W. (1968b). A review of psychoendocrine research on the sympathetic-adrenal medullary system. Psychosomatic Medicine, 30, 631–653.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Matthews, K. A. (1982). Psychological perspectives on the Type A behavior pattern. Psychological Bulletin, 91, 293–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. McGrath, J. E. (1970). Settings, measures and themes: An integrative review of some research on social-psychological factors in stress. In J. E. McGrath (Ed.), Social and psychological factors in stress (pp. 58–96 ). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  68. Musante, L., MacDougall, J. M., Dembroski, T. M., and Van Horn, A. E. (1983). Component analysis of the Type A coronary-prone behavior pattern in male and female college students. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 1104–1117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Porter, R. W. (1987). Does hard work prevent disc protrusion? Clinical Biomechanics, 2, 196–198. Ragland, D. R., and Brand, R. J. (1988). Type A behavior and mortality from coronary heart disease. The New England Journal of Medicine, 318, 65–69.Google Scholar
  70. Rahe, R. (1972). Subjects’ recent life changes and their near-future illness reports: A review. Annals of Clinical Research, 4, 250–265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Rahe, R. H. (1975). Epidemiological studies of life change and illness. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 6, 133–146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rahe, R. H. (1979). Life change events and mental illness: an overview Journal of Human Stress, 5, 2–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Repetti, R., Matthews, K. A., and Waldron, I. (1989). Employment and women’s health: Effects of paid employment on women’s mental and physical health. American Psychologist, 44, 1394 1401.Google Scholar
  74. Review Panel. Weiss, D. M. (Ed.). (1981). Coronary-prone behavior and coronary heart disease: A critical review. Circulation, 63, 1199–1215.Google Scholar
  75. Rodin, J., and Ickovics, J. R. (1990). Women’s health. Review and research agenda as we approach the 21st century. American Psychologist, 45, 1018–1034.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rosenman, R. H., and Chesney, M. A. (1980). The relationship of Type A behavior to coronary heart-disease. Activitas Nervosa Superior, 22, 1–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Rosenman, R. H., Brand, R. J., Sholtz, R. I., and Friedman, M. (1976). Multivariate prediction of coronary heart disease during 8.5 year follow-up in the western collaborative group study. American Journal of Cardiology, 37, 903–910.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Roskies, E., Spevack, M., Surkis, A., Cohen, C., and Gilman, S. (1978). Changing the coronary-prone (Type A) behavior pattern in a nonclinical population. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 1, 201–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Rozanski, A., Bairey, C. N., Krantz, D. S., Friedman, J., Resser, K. J., Morell, M., HiltonChalfen, S., Hestrin, L., Bietendorf, J., and Berman, D. S. (1988). Mental stress and the induction of silent myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease. The New England Journal of Medicine, 318, 1005–1011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Selye, H. (1956). The stress of life. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  81. Selye, H. (1974). Stress without distress. Philadelphia and New York: Lippincott.Google Scholar
  82. Schnorr, T. M., Thun, M. J., and Halperin, W. E. (1987). Chest pain in users of video display terminals. Journal of American Medical Association, 257, 627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Shekelle, R. B., Hulley, S. B., Neaton, J. D., Billings, J., Borhani, N. O., Gerace, T. A., Jacobs, D., Lasser, N., Mittlemark, M., and Stamler, J. (1986). Type A behavior and risk of coronary heart disease in the multiple risk factor intervention trial. In T. H. Schmidt, T. M. Dembroski, and G. Blümchen (Eds.), Biological and psychological factors in cardiovascular disease (pp. 4155 ). Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  84. Shekelle, R. B., Gale, M., Ostfeld, A. M., and Paul, O. (1983). Hostility, risk of coronary heart disease, and mortality. Psychosomatic Medicine, 45, 109–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Snow, B. R., and Glass, D. C. (1981). Differential reactivity of Type A and B individuals to congruent and incongruent environments. Paper presented at the 52nd Annual Meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association, New York.Google Scholar
  86. Statistics, Sweden. (1990). Women and men in Sweden. Equality of the sexes 1990.Google Scholar
  87. Ursin, H., Baade, E., and Levine, S. (1978). Psychobiology of stress. A study of coping men. New York, San Francisco, and London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  88. Usdin, E., Kvetnansky, R., and Kopin, I. J. (Eds.). (1980). Catecholamines and stress: Recent advances. New York: Elsevier North-Holland.Google Scholar
  89. Venables, P. H., and Christie, M. J. (Eds.). (1975). Research in psychophysiology. New York, London, and Sydney: Wiley.Google Scholar
  90. Waldron, I. (1991). Effects of labor force participation on sex differences in mortality and morbidity. In M. Frankenhaeuser, U. Lundberg, and M. Chesney (Eds.). Women, work and health. Stress and opportunities (pp. 17–38 ). New York and London, Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Williams, R. B., Barefoot, J. C., and Shekelle, R. B. (1985). The health consequences of hostility. In M. A. Chesney and R. H. Rosenman (Eds.), Anger and hostility in cardiovascular and behavioral disorders. (pp. 173–185). New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 173–185.Google Scholar
  92. Wortman, C., Biernat, M., and Lang, E. (1991). Coping with role overload. In M. Frankenhaeuser, U. Lundberg, and M. Chesney (Eds.), Women, work and health. Stress and opportunities. (pp. 85110 ). New York and London: Plenum Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ulf Lundberg
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyStockholm UniversityStockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations