Thermoelectric Effects in Superconductors

  • G. F. Zharkov


It is a pleasure and an honour for me to speak before this highly esteemed audience. The subject of my talk is devoted to thermoelectric effects in superconductors. The question of whether thermoelectric phenomena can be observed in metals in the superconducting state was raised more than 50 years ago, but first attempts to observe such effects as Seebeck electromotive force, or Peltier heat, or Thomson heat, failed to reveal any trace of the existence of these effects in superconductors. In any case, it was definitely shown that these effects, if they exists are weaker by many orders of magnitude, than the analogous effects in normal metals. This was especially clearly demonstrated by the experiment of Steiner and Grassman in 1935,1 who tried to observe a Seebeck electromotive force in superconductors. These authors suspended a superconducting bimetallic ring on a torsion wire placed in a weak external magnetic field and heated the ring. If a Seebeck thermo-electromotive force would arise, as it arises in a case of normal metals, then this force would induce acceleration of superconducting electrons and the current in the ring would increase with time, leading to a torque on the wire, which it might be possible to observe.


Magnetic Flux Electromotive Force Normal Metal Meissner Effect Thermoelectric Effect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    K. Steiner and P. Grassman, Phys. Zeit, 36, 527 (1935).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    D. Shoenberg, Superconductivity Cambridge University Press (1965), Chap. 3, 7.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    A.C. Rose-Innes and E.H. Rhoderick, Introduction to Superconductivity Pergamon Press (1969), Chap. V and 5.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    W.F. Vinen in Superconductivity ed. by Parks, Vol. 2, Chap. 20.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    S.I. Putterman, Superfluid Hydrodynamics North Holland/American Elsevier (1974).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    J.M. Luttinger, Phys. Rev., A136, 1481 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Stephen, Phys. Rev., 139, 197 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    V.L. Ginzburg, Zh. Eksp. Theor. Fiz. 14, 177 (1944); Journ. Phys., USSR 8, 148 (1944).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    P.M. Selzer and W.M. Fairbank, Phys. Lett., 48A, 279 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yu.M. Galperin, V.L. Gurevich and V.I. Kozub, Pisma Zh.E.T.P. 17, 687 (1973)Google Scholar
  11. Yu.M. Galperin, V.L. Gurevich and V.I. Kozub, Zh.E.T.P. 66, 1387 (1974).Google Scholar
  12. 11.
    J.G. Garland and D.J.Van Harlingen, Phys. Lett. 47A, 423 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 12.
    V.L. Ginzburg, G.F. Zharkov and A.A. Sobj 20, 223 (1974).Google Scholar
  14. 13.
    N.V. Zavaritsky, Pisma Zh.E.T.P., 19, 205Google Scholar
  15. 14a.
    C.M. Pegrum, A.M. Guénault, G.R. Pickett, 14th Int. Conf. Low Temp. Phys., Otaniemi Vol. 2, p. 513.Google Scholar
  16. 14b.
    C.M. Falco, Solid State Comm. 19, 623 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 15a.
    C.M. Pegrum, A.M. Guénault, Physics Lett. 59A, 393 (1976).Google Scholar
  18. 15b.
    D.J. Van Harlingen and J.C. Garland, Proceedings of Int. Conf. on Thermoelectricity, East Lansing, USA (1977), p. 173 (in print).Google Scholar
  19. 15c.
    C.M. Pegrum and A.M. Guénault, Proceedings of Int. Conf. on Thermoelectricity, East Lansing, USA (1977), p. 179 (in print).Google Scholar
  20. 16.
    V.L. Ginzburg and G.F. Zharkov, Thermoelectric Effects in Superconductors, Preprint N 115, Physical Lebedev Inst. Moscow (1977).Google Scholar
  21. 17.
    G.F. Zharkov and A.A. Sobjanin, Pisma Zh.E.T.P. 20, 163 (1974).Google Scholar
  22. 18.
    T.J.Rieger, D.J. Scalapina and J.E. Mercerna, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 1781 (1971).Google Scholar
  23. 19.
    M. Tinkham and J. Clarke, Phys. Rev. Lett., 28, 1366 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. M. Tinkham. Phys. Rev., B6, 1747 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 20.
    S.N. Artemenko and A.F. Vokov, Zh.E.T.P. 70, 1051 (1976).Google Scholar
  26. 21.
    A.M. Gulian and G.F. Zharkov, Short Comm. in Physics, (in press). Proceedings of the Conference on Thermoelectric Phenomena in Metals, East Lansing, USA, 1977 (to be published).Google Scholar
  27. 22.
    M.L. Yu and J.E. Mercerau, Phys. Rev. B12, 4909 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. F. Zharkov
    • 1
  1. 1.Lebedev InstituteMoscowUSSR

Personalised recommendations