The baking of dough and its transformation into bread is the most important stage in breadmaking, and it has a great effect on the taste of the final product. Baking may take place in any of several types of bread ovens, including
  • masonry ovens, which are simply an improvement of the stone oven known since very ancient times. These are very rare today. They may be wood burning (Figure 7-1), with combustion occurring either directly on the sole or floor of the baking chamber or in a firebox located in the forepart of the oven. In the latter case, the heat, flames, and smoke from the burning wood are pulled into the heart of the oven by the effect of chimney draw or draft. Gas burners may be used in the same manner. Although fuel oil was also in common use for several decades, this is no longer permitted in France. Multiple baking cycles may be carried out after oven heating as a result of the accumulation of heat energy in the masonry mass of the oven, which generally weighs between 40 and 50 tons.


Maillard Reaction Crumb Structure Bread Crust Crust Coloration Bake Bread 
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  1. 1.
    Professor Calvel’s French printer may have left a few words out of the original sentence. However, reduced oven spring is common with rough-surfaced baking forms to which the dough adheres.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    This is important for hygiene and worker safety. Flour dust on a tile or sealed concrete floor can be extremely slick and may cause serious falls and consequent injury.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Some researchers have found that accelerated staling occurs at the critical zone just above freezing, so it is advisable to bring the loaves through this range as rapidly as possible to minimize staling. This also explains why bread should never be refrigerated.Google Scholar

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raymond Calvel

There are no affiliations available

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